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graphite and diamond are ___ of carbon


hydrides and ___ have three types: Saline, Covalent, and Interstitial


Group 1, Group 2, Al + C(2)2- or C4- make up the ___ carbides


○ Extremely toxic.
○ Used in extraction of gold: Take crushed ore, add ___, react with gold, put in solution, remove solution, salt out the answer, and leaves gold.


the ___ molecule..
○ Named after Buckminster, who was an architect. He made geodesic domes.
○ C60 means there's 60 carbons
○ Composed of nanogears made of carbon


○ Used by the military on their food to decrease the male sex drive.
○ 78% air by volume
○ Mineral sources: KNO3 (saltpeter)


○ Prepared by the Haber process
○ Used in fertilizers
○ Pungent, toxic gas
○ Colorless liquid at -33degrees C
○ Strong Lewis base (donates electrons)
○ - gaseous form is very soluble in water because the NH3 molecules can from hydrogen bonds to H2O molecules


ammonia is prepared by the ___ process.

nitrous, nitric, nitrogen dioxide (think carbon dioxide)

• ___ oxide (N2O) - Laughing gas
• ___ oxide (NO) - Paramagnetic, highly toxic yellow-brown gas
• ___ ___ (NO2) - paramagnetic

nitric (NO)

___ oxide is paramagnetic and highly toxic. it's a yellow-brown gas.

aqua regia

If we do a ratio of 1:3 HNO3 and HCl, it'll turn a yellowish color. It'll dissolve/oxidize gold. It's a fuming, highly corrosive mixture of nitric and hydrochloric acids.

nitric acid


nitric acid

○ Colorless liquid that boils at 83oC and is normally used in aqueous solution.
○ Used extensively to produce fertilizers and explosives (e.g. OK city bombing)
○ Produced by the three-stage Ostwald process
○ concentrated nitric acid is often pale yellow as a result of partial decomposition of the acid to NO2.


nitric acid is prepared by the ___ process


• Nitrites (e.g. KNO2) are produced by the reduction of ___ (e.g. NO3) with hot metal.


○ It appears that, in the body, nitrites can be converted in to ____. These are a class of chemicals that may be carcinogenic in humans. Because of this, the USDA strictly limits the amount of nitrates and nitrites in meat products.


○ Means "light bringer" in Greek


○ The second most abundant element in the body (after calcium)


○ Allotropic forms of ___:
§ White (P4) - formed from the condensed vapor
§ Red (P8) - used in the striking surfaces of matchbooks and on the sides of boxes of safety matches


___ (mineral forms of calcium phosphate). are rocks heated in an electric furnace with carbon and sand to give us phosphorus. these are a group of phosphate minerals used in making fertilizers.

metal, nonmetal

the metalloids are physically like a ___, chemically like a ___


• Known as "___," meaning "brass giver." These are found in copper ores. copper is a major component of brass. (to remember, on the periodic chart the Oxygen family is between Carbon and the halogens).

electron pair repulsion

concerning oxygen...

○ Liquid oxygen is pale blue, explosive, and paramagnetic.
○ Gas is colorless
○ Ozone is a blue gas
○ ___ ___ ___ catches liquid oxygen between the two magnets

sulfuric acid


sulfurous acid


galena (PbS)

□ ___ was used for radios to receive signals There's an active site on the crystal that can receive the radio signals.

ion exchange

"___ ___" is deionizing water. It's the replacement of one type of ion in a solution by another.


In ion exchange, water passes through a ___, an aluminosilicate with a very open structure that can capture ions such as Mg2+ and Ca2+ and exchange them for H+ ions.


In ion exchange, water passes through a zeolite, an aluminosilicate with a very open structure that can capture ions such as Mg2+ and Ca2+ and exchange them for H+ ions. In a home they don't have zeolites, but they soften hard water by replacing the Mg and Ca with ___.


_% hydrogen peroxide - put on cuts to kill cells (which make it heal slower). It dislodges any particles in there, killing germs and dislodging anything. However, if the cut is too deep they don't want you using it because it'll do a lot damage.


Contact with blood catalyzes hydrogen peroxide into water and ___, which cleanses the wound.

salt formers

this group, dubbed the ___ ___, contains reactive non-metals and are highly toxic (though the toxicity decreases as you go down)

astatine (At)

For the ___ element (a group 17), all isotopes are radioactive

HF (hydrofluoric acid)

__ is used in etching glass. They put tape on, put a paste of this stuff, then take it off.


in halogen compounds, the ___ electronegative always goes in the center. E.g. between chlorine and fluorine, chlorine will go in the middle.


• The ___ contain solids (iodine, Astatine), liquids (Bromine), and gases (F and Cl)


• People used to think the noble gasses were chemically inert. ___ was the first one that they made something out of in 1962


• xenon ___ are powerful fluorinating agents and xenon oxides are powerful oxidizing agents


• Below _ Kelvin, helium flows without viscosity. It's the only one that demonstrates this property of superfluidity.

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