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thoracic cavity

Begin the dissection by opening the ____, which houses the heart and lungs.


The ___ is the flat bone lying midventrally to which ribs attach.

thymus gland

The ___ plays an important role in the development of the body's immune system. It is on the side of the pig's neck and is large.


___ is an expanded structure through which air passes from the mouth to the narrower trachea. It houses the vocal cords.


The ___ leads to the larynx.

thyroid gland

The ___ is small, reddish, and secretes hormones that influence metabolism.


The heart lies in the ___ cavity, within the thoracic cavity.


The lungs lie in the ___ cavity, within the thoracic cavity.

pulmonary circuit, systemic circuit

What are the two circulatory pathways found in mammalian circulation.

pulmonary circuit

The ___ carries blood from the heart to the lungs in arteries and back to the heart in veins.

systemic circuit

The ___ carries blood from the heart in arteries to all organs but the lungs and back to the heart in veins.

pericardial cavity

The heart lies in the ___ between the two pleural cavities.

parietal pericardium, parietal pleura

The wall of the pericardial sac is a tough membrane compose of two fused coelomic epithelial linings, the ___ and the ___.

venae cavae, pulmonary veins

The right and left atrium are small, dark, anteriorly located heart chambers that receive blood from the ____ and the ___ respectively.

coronary artery

The right and left ventricles are large muscular heart chambers that contract to pump blood. A branch of the ___ may be seen on the heart surface where the ventricles share a common wall.

pulmonary trunk

As the heart contracts, blood is forced from the right ventricle into the ____.


The ___ lies just dorsal to the pulmonary trunk

pulmonary arteries, ductus arteriosus

The pulmonary trunk curves cranially, giving off three branches: the right and left ___ and the ___.

ductus arteriosus

The ___ is the short, large-diameter vessel that connects the pulmonary trunk to the aorta.


The right and left pulmonary arteries conduct blood to the ___.

atrioventricular valves

The ___ are located between the atria and the ventricles.

cranial vena cava, caudal vena cava

Blood returns to the heart from organs of the body through two large veins, the __ and ___.

brachiocephalic veins

The ___ stream from the head and unite in the cranial vena cava.


the external and internal ___ carry blood returning from the head.

subclavian vein

The ___ drains blood from the front leg and shoulder.

aortic arch

The ___ lies behind the pulmonary trunk and is the curve of the aorta.

brachiocephalic trunk

The ____ is the first and larger branch from the aortic arch.

left subclavian artery

The ___ is the second branch from the aortic arch.

right subclavian artery

The ___ is a major branch from the brachiocephalic trunk, which gives off several branches that serve the right shoulder and limb area.

common carotid arteries

The two ___ are major branches from the brachiocephalic trunk, which carry blood to the head.

azygos vein

A large conspicuous vein, the ___, lies near the region of the aorta. It carries blood from the ribs back to the heart.

dorsal aorta

The ___ passes into the abdominal cavity, where it branches into arteries supplying the abdominal organs, the legs, and the tail. It may branch into the umbilical cord.

renal arteries

The two ___ lead to the kidneys.

external iliac arteries, umbilical arteries

The dorsal aorta sends branches into the hind legs (the ____) and to the placenta (the ____) through the umbilical cord.

parietal peritoneum

The ___ lines the abdominal cavity

hepatic veins

The ___ carry blood from the liver to the caudal vena cava.

portal circulation

A system of ___ exists in the digestive system.

hepatic portal vein

The mesenteric and lienogastric veins unite to form the ___, which enters the liver.

umbilical vein

small branches of the ___ join the hepatic portal vein as it enters the liver.

ductus venosus

The majority of the blood passes through a channel in the liver called the ___ into the caudal vena cava.

foramen ovale

the ___ makes possible the second pathway of blood through the heart.


The trachae branches into ___, which leads into the lobes of the lungs.


Bronchioles continue to branch and ultimately lead to microscopic ___.

excretory, reproductive

The ___ system shares many embryonic and some adult structures with the ___ system.


The ___ system keeps all organ systems functioning appropriately and in harmony.

nervous, endocrine

The ___ and the ___ systems coordinate the activities of all organ systems.

sensory component, sensory nerves

The nervous system consists of a ___, made up of sensory receptors that detect such stimuli as light, sound, touch, and the concentration of oxygen in the blood, and the ___, which carry the data to the central nervous system.

brain, spinal cord

The central nervous system consists of the ___ and ___.


The motor system carries impulses along motor nerves to ___ such as glands, muscles, and other organs, bringing about the appropriate response.


The ___ system consists of glands, which respond to stimuli by secreting hormones into the blood to be transported to target tissues in the body.

thymus, thyroid, pancreas

Name three endocrine glands.


___ is the steady state condition in the vertebrate body

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