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52 terms

Lab Topics 23-24

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thoracic cavity
Begin the dissection by opening the ____, which houses the heart and lungs.
sternum
The ___ is the flat bone lying midventrally to which ribs attach.
thymus gland
The ___ plays an important role in the development of the body's immune system. It is on the side of the pig's neck and is large.
larynx
___ is an expanded structure through which air passes from the mouth to the narrower trachea. It houses the vocal cords.
glottis
The ___ leads to the larynx.
thyroid gland
The ___ is small, reddish, and secretes hormones that influence metabolism.
pericardial
The heart lies in the ___ cavity, within the thoracic cavity.
pleural
The lungs lie in the ___ cavity, within the thoracic cavity.
pulmonary circuit, systemic circuit
What are the two circulatory pathways found in mammalian circulation.
pulmonary circuit
The ___ carries blood from the heart to the lungs in arteries and back to the heart in veins.
systemic circuit
The ___ carries blood from the heart in arteries to all organs but the lungs and back to the heart in veins.
pericardial cavity
The heart lies in the ___ between the two pleural cavities.
parietal pericardium, parietal pleura
The wall of the pericardial sac is a tough membrane compose of two fused coelomic epithelial linings, the ___ and the ___.
venae cavae, pulmonary veins
The right and left atrium are small, dark, anteriorly located heart chambers that receive blood from the ____ and the ___ respectively.
coronary artery
The right and left ventricles are large muscular heart chambers that contract to pump blood. A branch of the ___ may be seen on the heart surface where the ventricles share a common wall.
pulmonary trunk
As the heart contracts, blood is forced from the right ventricle into the ____.
aorta
The ___ lies just dorsal to the pulmonary trunk
pulmonary arteries, ductus arteriosus
The pulmonary trunk curves cranially, giving off three branches: the right and left ___ and the ___.
ductus arteriosus
The ___ is the short, large-diameter vessel that connects the pulmonary trunk to the aorta.
lungs
The right and left pulmonary arteries conduct blood to the ___.
atrioventricular valves
The ___ are located between the atria and the ventricles.
cranial vena cava, caudal vena cava
Blood returns to the heart from organs of the body through two large veins, the __ and ___.
brachiocephalic veins
The ___ stream from the head and unite in the cranial vena cava.
jugulars
the external and internal ___ carry blood returning from the head.
subclavian vein
The ___ drains blood from the front leg and shoulder.
aortic arch
The ___ lies behind the pulmonary trunk and is the curve of the aorta.
brachiocephalic trunk
The ____ is the first and larger branch from the aortic arch.
left subclavian artery
The ___ is the second branch from the aortic arch.
right subclavian artery
The ___ is a major branch from the brachiocephalic trunk, which gives off several branches that serve the right shoulder and limb area.
common carotid arteries
The two ___ are major branches from the brachiocephalic trunk, which carry blood to the head.
azygos vein
A large conspicuous vein, the ___, lies near the region of the aorta. It carries blood from the ribs back to the heart.
dorsal aorta
The ___ passes into the abdominal cavity, where it branches into arteries supplying the abdominal organs, the legs, and the tail. It may branch into the umbilical cord.
renal arteries
The two ___ lead to the kidneys.
external iliac arteries, umbilical arteries
The dorsal aorta sends branches into the hind legs (the ____) and to the placenta (the ____) through the umbilical cord.
parietal peritoneum
The ___ lines the abdominal cavity
hepatic veins
The ___ carry blood from the liver to the caudal vena cava.
portal circulation
A system of ___ exists in the digestive system.
hepatic portal vein
The mesenteric and lienogastric veins unite to form the ___, which enters the liver.
umbilical vein
small branches of the ___ join the hepatic portal vein as it enters the liver.
ductus venosus
The majority of the blood passes through a channel in the liver called the ___ into the caudal vena cava.
foramen ovale
the ___ makes possible the second pathway of blood through the heart.
bronchi
The trachae branches into ___, which leads into the lobes of the lungs.
alveoli
Bronchioles continue to branch and ultimately lead to microscopic ___.
excretory, reproductive
The ___ system shares many embryonic and some adult structures with the ___ system.
nervous
The ___ system keeps all organ systems functioning appropriately and in harmony.
nervous, endocrine
The ___ and the ___ systems coordinate the activities of all organ systems.
sensory component, sensory nerves
The nervous system consists of a ___, made up of sensory receptors that detect such stimuli as light, sound, touch, and the concentration of oxygen in the blood, and the ___, which carry the data to the central nervous system.
brain, spinal cord
The central nervous system consists of the ___ and ___.
effectors
The motor system carries impulses along motor nerves to ___ such as glands, muscles, and other organs, bringing about the appropriate response.
endocrine
The ___ system consists of glands, which respond to stimuli by secreting hormones into the blood to be transported to target tissues in the body.
thymus, thyroid, pancreas
Name three endocrine glands.
homeostasis
___ is the steady state condition in the vertebrate body