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25 terms

Hypo/Hyper Function of the Endocrine System

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Adenohypophysis
anterior portion of the pituitary gland
derived from ectoderm growing up from the oral cavity of the fetus
makes up about 80% of the gland
functions in production and storage of hormones
Neurohypophysis
posterior portion of the pituitary gland
derived from the brain and is connected to the hypothalamus
makes up about 20% of the gland
functions in the storage of hormones
Hypopituitarism
the deficiency of one or more pituitary hormones
can be caused by tumor, infarction, surgery, radiation, trauma, disease, or genetic syndromes
Panhypopituitarism
the deficiency of all of the pituitary hormones
Craniopharyngioma
a benign cystic pituitary tumor
congenital lesion
causes pituitary hormone deficiencies by crowding out pituitary cells
Diabetes Insipidus
deficiency of vasopressin
caused by gene defect, trauma, or tumor
symptoms are constant urination and excessive thirst
ACTH
adrenocorticotropin hormone or "corticotropin"
secreted by the anterior pituitary
regulates the function of the adrenal hormones
Pituitary Adenoma
tumors that occur within the pituitary gland
Non-toxic Goiter
an enlarged thyroid that is not hypo or hyper functioning
seen in adolescence, pregnancy, and some cases of viral/autoimmune thyroiditis
Hashimoto Thyroiditis
an autoimmune thyroid disease
lymphocyte destruction
circulating antibodies to thyroid peroxidase and thyroglobulin
lymphocytic infiltrates, gland destruction, metaplasia of follicular epithelial cells
PTH
parathyroid hormone
secreted by the parathyroid glands
controls calcium metabolism
Prolactin
secreted by anterior pituitary
stimulated production and secretion of breastmilk
Prolactinoma
benign pituitary tumor of lactotrophs
secreted excess prolactin
symptoms are galatorrhea, headache, impotence, and infertility
Hypothyroidism
underproduction of thyroid hormones
may occur with or without goiter
caused by congenital lesions, hashimoto thyroiditis, durgery, viruses, or drugs (Lithium)
symptoms are bradycardia, constipation, cold intolerance, dry skin, hair loss, and edema of the face, hands, and feet
Hyperthyroidism
overproduction of thyroid hormone
usually occurs with goiter
most common is Grave's Disease (autoimmune disease)
enlarged gland with hyperplastic and hypervascular appearance
symptoms are tachycardia, diarrhea, heat intolerance, restlessness, irritability, the creepy eyes
Hypoparathyroidism
caused by decreased PTH secretion that leads to low calcium
seizures, tingling, cramps, stridor
caused by surgery, autoimmune diseases, and congenital syndromes of absence of the parathyroid glands
Hyperparathyroidism
caused by excessive PTH production that leads to high calcium
kidney and pancreatic stones, psychiatric illness, abdominal pain ("stones, moans, and groans")
caused by benign tumors, cancer, or hyperplasia of the parathyroid glands
TSH
Thyroid Stimulating Hormone
secreted by the anterior pituitary
acts on the thyroid hormones (growth factors, etc.)
Addison's Disease
adrenal cortex insufficiency due to autoimmunity, infection, or infarction
symptoms are hypoglycemia, shock, low sodium, high potassium
life threatening and must be treated with glucocorticoids
Cushing Syndrome
overproduction of adrenal cortex hormones (mostly cortisol)
caused by adrenal tumors, overproduction of ACTH by the pituitary gland, or by taking large doses of prednisone
symptoms are an obese trunk with thin limbs, moon faces, purple striae on the abdomen, thinning skin, osteoporosis, the "buffalo bump" dorsal fat pad, and hypertension
Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia
a genetic disease in which the person is midding an enzyme in the adrenal cortex pathway
causes cortisol deficiency, and overproduction of androgens
results in male like genitalia in baby girls
APS
autoimmune polyglandular syndromes
combination of several endocrine difficultiues
autoimmune disease that are the result of destruction of endocrine glands by antibodies or lymphocytic damage
result in hypofunction of endocrine glands
APS I
Addison Disease
Mucocutaneous Candidiasis
Hypoparathyroidism
APS II
Addison Disease
Autoimmune Thyroiditis
Pernicious Anemia
Type I Diabetes Mellitus
APS III
type I Diabetes Mellitus
Autoimmune Thyroid Disease