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anterior portion of the pituitary gland
derived from ectoderm growing up from the oral cavity of the fetus
makes up about 80% of the gland
functions in production and storage of hormones


posterior portion of the pituitary gland
derived from the brain and is connected to the hypothalamus
makes up about 20% of the gland
functions in the storage of hormones


the deficiency of one or more pituitary hormones
can be caused by tumor, infarction, surgery, radiation, trauma, disease, or genetic syndromes


the deficiency of all of the pituitary hormones


a benign cystic pituitary tumor
congenital lesion
causes pituitary hormone deficiencies by crowding out pituitary cells

Diabetes Insipidus

deficiency of vasopressin
caused by gene defect, trauma, or tumor
symptoms are constant urination and excessive thirst


adrenocorticotropin hormone or "corticotropin"
secreted by the anterior pituitary
regulates the function of the adrenal hormones

Pituitary Adenoma

tumors that occur within the pituitary gland

Non-toxic Goiter

an enlarged thyroid that is not hypo or hyper functioning
seen in adolescence, pregnancy, and some cases of viral/autoimmune thyroiditis

Hashimoto Thyroiditis

an autoimmune thyroid disease
lymphocyte destruction
circulating antibodies to thyroid peroxidase and thyroglobulin
lymphocytic infiltrates, gland destruction, metaplasia of follicular epithelial cells


parathyroid hormone
secreted by the parathyroid glands
controls calcium metabolism


secreted by anterior pituitary
stimulated production and secretion of breastmilk


benign pituitary tumor of lactotrophs
secreted excess prolactin
symptoms are galatorrhea, headache, impotence, and infertility


underproduction of thyroid hormones
may occur with or without goiter
caused by congenital lesions, hashimoto thyroiditis, durgery, viruses, or drugs (Lithium)
symptoms are bradycardia, constipation, cold intolerance, dry skin, hair loss, and edema of the face, hands, and feet


overproduction of thyroid hormone
usually occurs with goiter
most common is Grave's Disease (autoimmune disease)
enlarged gland with hyperplastic and hypervascular appearance
symptoms are tachycardia, diarrhea, heat intolerance, restlessness, irritability, the creepy eyes


caused by decreased PTH secretion that leads to low calcium
seizures, tingling, cramps, stridor
caused by surgery, autoimmune diseases, and congenital syndromes of absence of the parathyroid glands


caused by excessive PTH production that leads to high calcium
kidney and pancreatic stones, psychiatric illness, abdominal pain ("stones, moans, and groans")
caused by benign tumors, cancer, or hyperplasia of the parathyroid glands


Thyroid Stimulating Hormone
secreted by the anterior pituitary
acts on the thyroid hormones (growth factors, etc.)

Addison's Disease

adrenal cortex insufficiency due to autoimmunity, infection, or infarction
symptoms are hypoglycemia, shock, low sodium, high potassium
life threatening and must be treated with glucocorticoids

Cushing Syndrome

overproduction of adrenal cortex hormones (mostly cortisol)
caused by adrenal tumors, overproduction of ACTH by the pituitary gland, or by taking large doses of prednisone
symptoms are an obese trunk with thin limbs, moon faces, purple striae on the abdomen, thinning skin, osteoporosis, the "buffalo bump" dorsal fat pad, and hypertension

Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia

a genetic disease in which the person is midding an enzyme in the adrenal cortex pathway
causes cortisol deficiency, and overproduction of androgens
results in male like genitalia in baby girls


autoimmune polyglandular syndromes
combination of several endocrine difficultiues
autoimmune disease that are the result of destruction of endocrine glands by antibodies or lymphocytic damage
result in hypofunction of endocrine glands


Addison Disease
Mucocutaneous Candidiasis


Addison Disease
Autoimmune Thyroiditis
Pernicious Anemia
Type I Diabetes Mellitus


type I Diabetes Mellitus
Autoimmune Thyroid Disease

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