13 terms

Lecture 3 Serial Position Effect

STUDY
PLAY

Terms in this set (...)

Serial Position Effect
-in which people tend to recall the first & last items but not the middle/central items
-Primacy Effect=Remember the earlier items
-Recency Effect=Remember the last items(recent)
Mechanisms at work (SPE)
Primacy Effect-people rehearse the first items they hear the most, & therefore are more likely to remember them later
-Recency Effect-the explanations that have the most empirical support are that the recency effect occurs because items at the end of the list are more readily available & easy to retrieve, also suffer less interference
- recency is stronger than primacy
Social Anxiety-How does it affect memory?
-Experiment
-People sit in circle, all say a word, after a delay asked to recall as many words as can
-Drop in performance before and after your word (Anxiety)
-Word before- anxious about saying your word
-Word after- relief after saying your word
-Follows SPE pattern with a blip around your word.
Social Anxiety-How does it affect memory? -Couples
-People sit opposite partner in circle
-attention diverted to partner (feel anxiety for them)
→similar peak and trough for their word
-tracked relative sizes of peaks & troughs-highly correlated with relation ship satisfaction
Wide Applications of SPE
-Animals and infants show SPE
-don't need language to demonstrate SPE (eg pictures)
-Humor- when your laughing things become funnier(show recency effects), humor builds up
Von Restorff Effect
-Disruptions in SPE
-things that don't fit the pattern are remembered better(and those surrounding it less)
-break of context
-Animals show VRE
Implications for SPE:Law
-order of events in trial
→prosecution first
→summing up, prosecution first then defense, & sometimes prosecution rebuts
-Jury suffers from SPE
→1st person to tell a story that makes sense carries the day; they're considered first and the rest of the info they hear is either fitted into the first story or explained away
→primacy effect (jury is biased!)
Clinical Applications
-People with mild or more severe dementia are influenced by SPE in unusual ways
-Example-told to put NZ prime ministers in order, but have famous peole from the same era included
-Accuracy results show
→Ability to rank order is preserved
→primacy effect of dementia is ↓ accuracy across the board (compared to mild dementia)
=still show SPE
Wine Tasting Implications
-2-5 glasses of wine from the same bottle, taster asked top pick favorite
-tendency to prefer the one that came first (primacy effect)
-Even with higher number of glasses to taste, still get a moderate primacy effect (opposite of tendency for recency effect to be stronger)
-replicated by wine experts
→the most whimsical of situations can affect how your consumer product is evaluated
→consumer decisions are influenced by things we don't even think about
Summary
SPE is widely applicable but can be disrupted by things such as emotion
What memory mechanisms contribute to the primacy and recency effects in the SPE?
Primacy - People rehearse the first items they hear the most, and are therefore more likely to remember them later.
Recency - The explanations that have the most empirical support are that recency effects occur because items at the end of a list are readily available and easy to retrieve. They also suffer less interference.
According to the serial position effect, what parts of today's lectures are you most, and least, likely to remember after class?
You would be most likely to remember details about how animals show a SPE due to primacy, and that the recency effect is seen in wine preference. You would be least likely to remember the information on cartoons, jury decisions and beliefs, and the ordering of presidents.
You and your partner are at your first day of class. The teacher has the class do an icebreaker so that everyone can get to know one another. Each person has to tell the rest of the class their name and favorite animal. Which of your classmate's responses are you likely to remember well? Which are you likely to remember poorly?
You're likely to remember your and your partners response well. You are likely to remember the person who went right before and after you or your partner poorly.