211 terms

Ecology - Quiz 2

Section 2
STUDY
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Terms in this set (...)

True or False. On average, you could expect the roots of desert plants to be exposed to the same variation in daily temperature as leaves of desert plants.
False
True or False. Temperatures within animal burrows are typically more moderate than surface soil temperatures.
True
________ slopes of the Negev Desert support higher densities of crust-forming mosses.
North facing
Organisms that live and thrive at cold temperatures, below 20ºC, are called
physchrophilic
How are the studies performed on rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and the moss Pleurozium schreberi and the desert shrub Atriplex lentiformis similar?
Both studies support the concept that species operate within a narrow optimum temperature range and are coupled to enzymatic activity.
When an organism becomes acclimated to a new environmental situation; it will generally involve
physiological changes
It is a very hot day, and you jump into a lake to cool off. What is the method of heat exchange?
Convection
What is metabolic heat (hm)
heat released during cellular respiration.
____________ use metabolic energy to maintain a relatively constant body temperature.
Homeotherms
The arctic and alpine cushion plants and the Camnula grasshopper both use __________________ to aid in thermoregulation.
Dark pigmentation
Aquatic environments generally show less temperature variation compared to terrestrial environments.
True
How does the skunk cabbage maintain the temperature of its inflorescence 15C to 35C above air ambient temperature?
metabolizing starch at a very high rate
Which of the following characteristics are not typical of arctic plants?
Open growth form
The leaves of many desert plants are covered with a dense coating of white plant hairs. These hairs reduce their _____ gain.
Hr
Dolphins use __________________ to conserve body heat.
Countercurrent heat exchange
Which of the following survival mechanisms is/are best suited for intense heat and drought?
estivation
Research suggests that the localized extinction of several species of land snails near Basal, Switzerland was due to:
Climatic warming
Based on IPCC 2007 projections, the highest average estimated temperature increase by the end of the 21st century, endemic vertebrates in Australian rainforests will occupy:
greater than or equal to 10% of their current range
White Nose Syndrome is believed to have led to the deaths of over 5.5 million bats in the Northeastern USA through which mechanism:
A psycrophilic fungus develops around the bats' faces during winter and causes them to arouse frequently and prematurely during hibernation. This depletes their energetic reserves and the bats starve.
A small-scale variation in climate caused by a distinctive substrate, location, or aspect is called a what?
microclimate
True or False. If Allen's Rule is true, Lepus americanus will have longer ears than Lepus alleni.
False
True or False. The maximum rate of photosynthesis occurs at approximately 25°C for all plants.
False
Which of the following are mismatched?
psychrophile: salt-loving microbe
The process of heat flow between a solid body and a moving fluid is _______.
Convection
The thermal neutral zone of a homeothermic animal is
the temperature range over which the metabolic rate does not change.
Which of the following animals has the broadest thermal neutral zone?
Artic fox
Which statement is true of the countercurrent heat exchange of the lateral muscles of the bluefin tuna?
heat flows from the veins to the arteries
Bluefin tuna and mackerel sharks are considered to be endothermic fish because their
lateral swim muscles heat cool arterial blood, thereby elevating their body temperature above the surrounding water temperature.
Torpor and hibernation share all of the following except:
Duration
Climate change is a growing concern for the survival of many species, in part because it has the potential to affect the timing of events differently in interacting species. When this occurs between two species it is referred to as a
phenological mismatch
Range contraction is an important consequence of climate change for some species. The plight of the polar bear is of particular concern because sea ice has declined by approximately _______ million square km over about ________ years, leaving the polar bears ______________.
1.7 million square km; 26 years; with an inability to move due to geographic barriers.
The ecological consequences of increasing temperature due to climate change include:
longer growing seasons, earlier migrations, altered species interactions.
O
Which soil horizon is most influenced by climate?
B
Which of the following levels of organization is/are correctly ordered?

A) population, ecosystem, landscape, individual, interaction

B) individual, population, interaction, community, ecosystem

C) biosphere, landscape, individual, community, interaction

D) ecosystem, landscape, region, interaction, population

E) None of the choices are correct.
C
Which of the following rivers would have the highest salinity?

A) Columbia River

B) Rio Negro

C) Pecos

D) They all have equally low salinity levels.

E) They all have equally high salinity levels.
B
Which of the following vertical aquatic zones is correctly ordered?

A) bathypelagic, mesopelagic, epipelagic, abyssal, hadal

B) epipelagic, mesopelagic, bathypelagic, abyssal, hadal

C) abyssal, bathypelagic, hadal, mesopelagic, epipelagic

D) epipelagic, bathypelagic, mesopelagic, hadal, abyssal

E) mesopelagic, abyssal, epipelagic, hadal, bathypelagic
A
Which of the following are mismatched?

A) psychrophile: salt-loving microbe

B) thermophile: heat-loving microbe

C) poikilotherm: ectotherm

D) homeotherm: endotherm

E) None of the choices are correct.
dark pigmentation
The arctic and alpine cushion plants and the Camnula grasshopper both use __________________ to aid in thermoregulation.
10° and 25° north and south latitudes.
Tropical dry forests are located between
hyperosmotic
Aquatic organisms whose ionic concentration of their body fluids exceeds that of their surroundings are
down its concentration gradient and enter the fish.
If a person were to place a marine fish into a fresh water lake, water would diffuse
sea; land
A marsh is the junction between ________________ and _________________.
both increases with temperature and parallels vapor pressure density.
Saturation water vapor pressure
pelagic.
Aquatic organisms located off the ocean floor are
E
All of the following statements are true except:

A) A horizon: mixture of organic and mineral materials.

B) B horizon: deposition of clay and humus.

C) C horizon: weathered parent material.

D) O horizon: organic layer.

E) All of the choices are correct.
B
Which of the following soil horizon profiles is ordered correctly?

A) A, B, C, O

B) O, A, B, C

C) O, B, A, C

D) C, B, O, A

E) None of the choices are correct.
movement of water down its concentration gradient.
The water availability for organisms is determined by
located at 30°north and south latitudes.
Most of the earth's deserts are
energy flow.
Population ecologists do not study
A
All of the following statements concerning wind are true except:

A) northeast trade winds blow toward the poles.

B) southeast trade winds blow toward the equator.

C) polar easterlies blow toward the equator.

D) westerlies blow toward the south pole in the southern hemisphere.

E) westerlies blow toward the north pole in the northern hemisphere.
3; 6
There are(is) _______ convective air cell(s) per hemisphere, _______ total for the earth.
the biosphere.
The highest level of ecological organization focuses on
C
In general, desert organisms try to decrease their rate of evaporative cooling in order to conserve water. Which of the following desert organisms sweats?

A) camel

B) cactus

C) cicada

D) scorpion

E) tiger beetle
A
All of the following statements concerning oligotrophic lakes are true except:

A) warm temperatures.

B) low nutrients.

C) high oxygen content.

D) deep and clear waters.

E) low biological productivity.
E
Of the following aquatic environments, which has the highest productivity?

A) lakes

B) rivers

C) oceanic zone

D) intertidal zone

E) coral reefs
both transpiration and evaporation.
Water vapor is continuously added to the air by
warm air to rise and cool air to sink.
Heating of the earth's surface causes
C
Which of the following survival mechanisms is/are best suited for intense heat and drought?

A) hibernation

B) torpor

C) estivation

D) both hibernation and torpor

E) both torpor and estivation
E
The timing and extent of tides are a function of all of the following except

A) the moon's gravitational force.

B) the sun's gravitational force.

C) geography

D) the size of the body of water

E) salinity levels
observations, experiments, and modeling; posing questions and formulating testable hypotheses; and statistical analysis
The 'scientific method' includes
C
Which is not considered a reef?

A) atoll

B) barrier

C) kelp

D) fringing

E) None of the choices are correct.
from less negative water potential to a more negative water potential.
In a terrestrial plant, water movement is as follows:
physiological changes
When an organism becomes acclimated to a new environmental situation; it will generally involve
Northern Hemisphere to deflect to the right.
Coriolis effect causes winds in the
D
All of the following statements are true except:

A) Tropical rain forests are continuously warm and wet.

B) Tropical dry forests have rainy and dry seasons.

C) In a desert, evaporation exceeds precipitation.

D) Taigas have moderate temperatures with occasional droughts.

E) Tundras are cold and dry.
D
Desert plants can prevent overheating by utilizing all of the following temperature regulating methods except:

A) paraheliotropism.

B) decreasing rates of radiative heating.

C) decreasing conductive heating.

D) increasing evaporative cooling.

E) increasing convective cooling.
convection
It is a very hot day, and you jump into a lake to cool off. What is the method of heat exchange?
small head streams is CPOM.
According to the river continuum, the main energy source for
C
All of the following statements concerning the hydrologic cycle are true except:

A) It is powered by solar energy.

B) Flux is determined by evaporation.

C) Transpiration is not involved.

D) Reservoirs include lakes, rivers, oceans, and ice.

E) None of the choices are correct.
poikilotherm
In general, reptiles are considered to be a/an?
B
All of the following statements are true concerning temperate lakes except:

A) Fall and spring turnovers involve vertical mixing of temperature stratified waters.

B) During fall and spring turnover, the oxygen rich hypolimnion moves up to the epilimnion.

C) During late fall and early spring, a temperate lake has a uniform water temperature.

D) During the year, the hypolimnion's temperature does not change.

E) Fall and spring turnovers involve the wind.
released during cellular respiration.
Metabolic heat (Hm) is the heat
isoosmotic
Aquatic organisms whose body fluids equal that of their surroundings are
evaporation
It's a hot summer day, and you begin to sweat. What is the method of heat exchange?
epiphyte mats contain a significant source of nutrients.
Nalini Nadkarni's study of tropical and temperate rain forests determined that
both spring equinox and autumnal equinox
The Northern and Southern Hemispheres receive approximately equal amounts of solar radiation on the
all of the organisms that live in an area and the physical environment with which they interact.
An ecosystem is defined as
reduce competition by feeding in different zones.
Robert MacArthur's observations on the Warblers of North America indicate that they
conduction
Getting up from your chair you realize that it is warm. What is the method of heat exchange?
conduction
How are the studies performed on rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and the moss Pleurozium schreberi and the desert shrub Atriplex lentiformis similar?
increases with increased vapor pressure deficit.
The potential for evaporative water loss by terrestrial organisms
D
In order to survive in the desert, a camel will employ which of the following mechanisms?

A) face away from sun

B) store water in its hump

C) shed its fur

D) allow its body temperature to rise

E) All of the choices are correct.
B
In general, a plant located in an arid climate will possess all of the following in order to prevent water loss except:

A) waxy coating.

B) decreased root biomass.

C) decreased shoot biomass.

D) increased root length.

E) reduces leaf size.
the study of relationships between organisms and the environment
What is ecology?
D
Earth's climatic variation is due to

A) the spherical shape of the earth.

B) earth's axial rotation as it orbits the sun.

C) uneven heating of the earth's surface.

D) All of the choices are correct.

E) None of the choices are correct.
physiological and anatomical mechanisms by which organisms deal with variation in their physical and chemical environment.
Physiological ecologists study
decreased metabolic rate.
A desert scorpion will use all of the following mechanisms in order to survive in the desert except:
a group of individuals of a single species inhabiting a defined area.
A population can be defined as
down; diffusion
Movement of water _____________ its concentration gradient is called ________________.
D
Which of the following terrestrial biomes are maintained by fires?

A) tropical dry forests

B) temperate forests and mountains

C) Mediterranean woodlands and shrublands

D) tropical savannas and temperate grasslands

E) boreal forests and tundra
climate and predominate plant types.
A biome is characterized primarily by
A
Climatic diagrams provide all of the following information except:

A) wind patterns.

B) average minimum temperature above and below 0°C.

C) temperature and precipitation variations.

D) wet and dry season durations.

E) None of the choices are correct.
E
All of the following contribute to the movement of water in a terrestrial plant except:

A) transpiration.

B) drying power of the sun.

C) hydrogen bonding.

D) water potential.

E) None of the choices are correct.
cools as it ascends.
Warm tropical air
both drink sea water and secrete Na+ into the surrounding water.
Bony marine fish
E
The effects of currents in streams include all of the following except

A) organism size.

B) organism shape.

C) organism behavior.

D) oxygen content.

E) None of the choices are correct.
high nutrient levels.
Eutrophic lakes are characterized by
E
All of the following are components that influence a microclimate except:

A) burrows.

B) vegetation.

C) ground color.

D) topography.

E) None of the choices are correct.
actual water vapor density is very low relative to the saturation water vapor density.
The evaporative water loss by an organism is high when the
low oxygen content.
Small head streams can be characterized by all of the following components except:
north; decreased evaporation rates
According to Kidron, Barzilay, and Sachs' research on the dune slopes of the Negev Desert, moss would most likely be found on _________ facing slopes due to _________.
because tundra has low evapotranspiration and low-nutrient soils.
The low productivity of arctic tundra ecosystems results
consumers in controlling primary productivity.
The "trophic cascade hypothesis" emphasizes the role of
increased export of nitrate (NO3-) in stream water.
Clearcutting at Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest sharply
trophic level
An organism's _________ describes its feeding position within an ecosystem.
NH3.
The end product of biological nitrogen fixation is
heterotrophs.
Herbivores, carnivores, and detritivores are all
dead plant tissues.
In Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest, the largest "standing stock" of energy is represented by biomass of
ammonium (NH4+) to nitrate (NO3-).
"Nitrification" is the conversion of
Both addition of nitrogen fertilizers and nitrogen pollution from burning of fossil fuels
Nitrogen enrichment of ecosystems by human activity is largely driven by
warm and wet.
The terrestrial ecosystems with highest primary production are usually those that are
Monera
The kingdom that contains the most trophic diversity:
slowly because lignin reduces colonization by decomposing fungi.
In aquatic ecosystems, leaves with high lignin content decompose
D
The rate of decomposition of leaf litter in woodlands can be strongly influenced by

A) moisture.

B) nitrogen content.

C) leaf toughness.

D) All of the choices are correct.

E) None of the choices are correct.
a single soil nutrient typically limits primary productivity.
Leibig's "Law of the Minimum" stated that
D
The rate of energy intake by an organism can be limited by

A)availability of energy in the environment.

B) foraging time.

C) handling time.

D) All of the choices are correct.

E) both availability of energy in the environment and foraging time.
release of carbon from fossil fuel deposits.
A major perturbation of the carbon cycle by human activity is associated with
are both chemoautotrophs.
Nitrifying bacteria, Nitrosomonas, and sulfur-oxidizing bacteria
Müllerian mimicry is a form of comimicry.
Müllerian and Batesian mimicries differ from one another because
E
Phosphorus is an important constituent of

A) DNA.

B) bone tissue.

C) RNA.

D) ATP.

E) All of the choices are correct.
hot and dry environments.
C4 and CAM plants are best suited for
Littoral zone
Shallow water zone, light penetrates to bottom.
Limnetic zone
Open, sunlit water surface.
Profundal zone
Deep, open water too dark for photosynthesis.
Benthic zone
Substrate, bottom of lakes.
Eutrophy
Well nourished, oxygen poor waters.
Oligotrophy
Nutrient poor, oxygen rich waters.
Mesotrophic
In between Eutrophic and Oligotrophic.
E
Which of the following is not considered a form of plant defense?

A) silica

B) thorns

C) cellulose

D) phenolic compounds

E) All the choices mentioned are plant defenses.
A
Which of the following are nitrogen fixing organisms?

A) cyanobacteria

B) leguminous plants

C) alders

D) All of the choices are correct.

E) both cyanobacteria and leguminous plants
creosote bush desert
Primary production is lowest in which ecosystem?
both ATP and NADPH
During the light dependent portion of photosynthesis, the energy found in photons is converted/transferred to
excavate nitrogen-poor subsoil to the surface.
Pocket gophers change the nitrogen cycle in prairies because they
C3
Transpiration rates are highest in ____ plants.
C
Which of the following is NOT an assumption of the t-test?

A) Each sample is drawn from a population with a normal distribution.

B) The two populations being compared have equal variances.

C) The two populations being compared have equal means.

D) All of each sample is drawn from a population with a normal distribution, the two populations being compared have equal variances, and the two populations being compared have equal means are assumptions.

E) None of each sample is drawn from a population with a normal distribution, the two populations being compared have equal variances, and the two populations being compared have equal means are assumptions.
aquatic fungi.
In aquatic ecosystems, the major agents of decomposition are
size
In general, among solitary predators, ________________ is/are most often the determining factor in prey selection.
about 66%
On the Serengeti plain of eastern Africa, large grazing mammals consume what fraction of total primary production?
photosynthesizers, chemosynthesizers, and autotrophs
Which of the following organisms use inorganic matter as their energy source?
Plantae
Which kingdom has the higher carbon to nitrogen ratios?
C
Several studies indicate that environmental conditions dictate plant biomass allocation; plants grown in infertile soils will allocate more energy into _________________ biomass.

A) leaf

B) stem

C) root

D) flower

E) seed
chemosynthetic autotrophs.
Organisms which synthesize organic compounds using CO2 as a carbon source and inorganic chemicals as an energy source are
NPP = GPP - RESP
Which of the following is the correct relationship between gross primary production (GPP), net primary production (NPP), and respiration (RESP)?.
ammonification.
Fungi and bacteria release nitrogen stored in dead tissue through a decomposition process called
nutrients.
Among lakes, primary productivity seems to be mainly controlled by levels of
They both initially fix carbon into a four carbon molecule.
How are C4 plants and CAM (crassulacean acid metabolism) plants similar?
predators
The main force in the development and refinement of prey defenses is/are
most phosphorus losses occurred during storms and snowmelt.
In Judy Meyer and Gene Likens' study of phosphorus in Bear Brook,
triple covalent
Nitrogen fixation is an energy-demanding process because of the strong _____ bond between the two nitrogen atoms in the N2 molecule.
evaporates from soils plus the amount transpired by plants.
"Actual evapotranspiration" for an ecosystem refers to the amount of water that
C3
In order for terrestrial plants to undergo photosynthesis and produce a six carbon sugar, which of the following metabolic pathways must occur?
both change in predictable ways across trophic levels and often vary among alternative food sources for a consumer.
Nitrogen stable isotopes are useful tools for the study of food web structure because isotope ratios
warm, moist
Actual evapotranspiration rates are highest in ____________ climates.
increased rates of grazing on phytoplankton by zooplankton.
In Stephen Carpenter and colleagues' manipulations of lake food webs, increased densities of adult largemouth bass led to
secondary consumers.
Carnivores that feed on herbivores (or on detritivores) are referred to as
mixing of subsurface with surface waters.
The major source of nutrients in surface waters of the open ocean is
denitrification
Nitrate is converted to molecular nitrogen, N2, in a process called
respiration by primary producers
Net primary productivity is the primary productivity of an ecosystem, after subtracting energy lost in
clams
A type 1 functional response curve would best represent
primary production
The production of new organic matter, or biomass, by autotrophs in a system is called ____________.
energy-yielding and anaerobic.
The process of denitrification is
increasing consumption of corn.
An increase about 1,000 years ago in 13C content of human collagen from archeological sites in eastern North America probably records
approximately 2%.
In Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest, the fraction of available solar energy fixed by primary producers is
C4
In ______ plants CO2 is fixed in the mesophyll cells using PEP carboxylase while sugar production occurs in the bundle sheath cells.
in rocks and sediments.
The largest reservoir of phosphorus in most ecosystems is phosphorus
type 2 functional response curve.
The photosynthetic response curve is most similar to
V represents the speed of water flow, and T represents the time required for nutrients to cycle.
Spiraling length of nutrients in streams can be calculated as S = VT. In this equation,
A
Which of the following is NOT an agent of nitrogen fixation?

A) mycorrhizal fungi

B) cyanobacteria (blue-green algae)

C) bacteria associated with legume roots

D) lightning

E) actinomycete bacteria associated with alder roots
both rainfall and moderate grazing.
The rate of primary production on the Serengeti grassland is positively correlated with
nitrogen.
Experimental fertilizations in the Baltic Sea suggest that primary productivity there is normally limited by
Igneous
Cooling volcanic flows
Sedimentary
Deposition of sediments
Metamorphic
Altered by heat and pressure
Ecotone
Area between biomes
Desert
Recieves less than 20 cm of annual rainfall
Little to no vegatation
Temperate grassland
Prairie, steppe, pampas or veldt
No trees
Savannas
Vast expanses of grassess interspersed with some trees and shrubs
Temperate deciduous forests
Lie between 40 and 50 latitude
Warm summers and cool winters
Forests
Taiga or Boreal
Ernst Haeckel
Coined the term Ecology
Humboldt
30 volume work on voage of spanish america
Kerner
Wrote "The natural history of Plants, Their forms, Growth, Reproduction, and Distribution"
Warming
Unified plant morphology, physiology, taxonomy, and biogeography.
Liebig
Wrote "Law of the Minimum"
Elton
Animal ecology
Hesse
Ecology Animal Geography
Shelford
Wrote "Law of Tolerance"
Heliotrope
Plants that track the sun
Desert plants can prevent overheating by utilizing all of the following temperature regulating methods
paraheliotropism.
decreasing rates of radiative heating.
decreasing conductive heating.
increasing convective cooling.
Evolution results from ......
mutations.
natural selection.
genetic drift.
Evolution can be defined as
a change in gene frequencies in a population
Question For a population in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, in a situation where there are only two alleles at a particular locus, the proportions of genotypes are: SS = 0.64, SA = 0.32, and AA = 0.04. Calculate the allele frequency for the A allele.
0.2
Metabolic heat (Hm) is the heat
released during cellular respiration.
When you sit on your chair, you realize that it is warm. What is the method of heat exchange?
conduction
In a population of birds, the average beak size is selected against and the large and small sized beaks are selected for. This is an example of
disruptive selection.
According to Kidron, Barzilay, and Sachs' research on the dune slopes of the Negev Desert, moss would most likely be found on _________ facing slopes due to _________.
the number of offspring or genes an individual contributes to future generations.
Question Dolphins use __________________ to conserve body heat.
countercurrent heat exchange
All of the following affect water potential within a plant
negative water pressure
matric forces
dissolved solutes
Aquatic organisms whose ionic concentration of their body fluids exceed that of their surroundings are
hyperosmotic.
The arctic flower, Dryas integrifolia, regulates the temperature of its reproductive structures by
sun-tracking behavior
Locally adapted and genetically distinctive populations within a species are referred to as
ecotypes
scientific theories
They are supported by multiple lines of evidence.
They are integrative, comprehensive explanations of many empirical observations.
Simpler explanations are preferred over those that are more complex.
They may be modified when new scientific knowledge becomes available
Water moves with the fastest rate from
an area with a very high water concentration to an area with a very low water concentration
Thornhill's research on mate selection among scorpionflies (Panorpa latipennis) indicates that male ____________ translates into successful mating opportunities
All of body size, aggresiveness, and nupital offering
Which of the following statements concerning lion cooperative living is false?
First and second ranked males sire the majority of cubs
In comparing the leafcutter ant's (Atta sexdens) society and the naked mole rat's (Heterocephalus glaber) society, there are several similarities in their cooperative living situation. What is the exception?
All workers are non-breeding females
True or False. The African green woodhoopoes tend to show philopatry because of limited availability of quality breeding territories.
True
Water conservation mechanisms used by plants adapted to dry conditions include
Dropping leaves, thick leaves, fewer stomata, dormancy
True or False. The longer the wavelength the more energy they carry.
False
The rate of energy intake by an organism can be limited by
availibity of energy in the enviornment, handling time, foraging time
The photosynthetic response curve is most similar to
Type 2 functional response curve