• Understand the difference between acidemia and acidosis and alkalemia and alkalosis.
• Know the characteristics of the different acid-base disorders and the compensatory responses they initiate.
• Define the 4 categories of primary acid-base disturbance.
• Understand the concept of compensation.
• Recognize simple acid base disorders and compensations, based on history and lab values (pH, HCO3, and PCO2).
• Grasp the factors responsible for the generation and perpetuation of metabolic alkalosis and understand the chloride responsive and chloride resistant metabolic alkaloses.
• Get the concept of the anion gap, and its clinical usefulness.
• Recognize the causes of normal anion gap metabolic acidosis.