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the father of rational emotive was born in Pittsburg but moved to New York and lived there for most of his life. He described his family as a mother who was independent, a father who cared about the family but was often away, and a younger brother and sister (Bernard, 2011). Ellis (2009) said his family was "pretty crazy" and that he raised himself. During his childhood he struggled with kidney disease and noted that he would work himself into a miserable state of mind and therefore learned at a young age that what people think affects their approach to life
Consequently, some of the origins of REBT can be traced to Freud and others to disillusionment with Freudian psychoanalysis
Ellis began concentrating on changing people's behavior by confronting them with their irrational beliefs and persuading them to adopt more rational ones.
a form of therapy that encouraged clients to learn how to dispute and overcome their maladaptive thinking. Ellis became unhappy that some people thought that rational therapy meant disregarding emotions, so he changed the name to rational emotive therapy.
"highly cognitive, very emotive, and particularly behavioral" form of counseling he had developed (Ellis, 1993). Ellis considered himself a philosophical or educational therapist and saw REBT as uniquely didactic, cognition oriented, and explicative.
He believed that REBT places people at the center of the universe and gives them almost full responsibility for their fat
Ellis noted that REBT, once a limited rational- persuasive therapy, had grown into a therapy that consciously used cognitive, emotive, and behavioral techniques to help clients
children have minimal emotional repertoires and tend to express emotions in a quick, unsustained manner
When children grow old enough to use language
effectively, they acquire the abil- ity to sustain their emotions and possibly keep themselves emotionally upset. That emotional disturbance is the result of the innate predisposition to irrational thought and life experiences. Rather than concentrating on past events,

REBT practitioners emphasize present events and how people react to them

According to REBT, people have an innate desire to survive, to feel pleasure, and to move toward self-actualization

Ellis identified two innate biological propensities that compound with that growth potential

One is the tendency to think and behave irrationally.

He discussed self-evaluation and criticism and the inclination to accept untested assumptions about self, others, and the world as inborn capacities

the ability to think rationally and be proactive in detecting and disputing irrational beliefs to live a more self-actualizing life is also natural.

This biological capacity gives each person power and responsibility for changing

Thus irrationality and rationality exist within each person, allowing each to choose to follow a rational or an irrational life

explained that people would be emotionally healthier if they realized that all their beliefs and thoughts could be wrong. People need to check the truth, usefulness, and logic of beliefs. Certain values promote adjustment and mental health and others do not help in developing healthy attitudes and behaviors.

stresses that, as human beings, we have options.

We control our ideas, attitudes, feelings, and actions, and we arrange our lives according to our own dictates.

We have little control over what happens or what actually exists, but we do have both choices and control over how we view the world and how we react to difficulties, regardless of how we have been taught to respond.

People are neither good nor bad, according to REBT theory, if they respond to others with a rational belief system.

If individuals react with irrational beliefs, however, they view themselves and others as evil, awful, and horrible whenever they or others fall short of their expectations.

Ellis viewed people as naturally irrational, self-defeating individuals who need to be taught to be otherwise.

They think crookedly about their desires and preferences and escalate them in a self-defeating manner into musts, shoulds, oughts, and demands.

In assimilating these irrational beliefs, people become emotionally disturbed and feel anger, anxiety, depression, worthlessness, self-pity, and other negative feelings that lead to destructive behavior.

Ellis also stated that people can be "naturally" helpful and loving as long as they do not think irrationally.

Irrational thinking leads to self-hate, which leads to self-destructive behavior, and eventually to hatred of others, which, in turn, causes others to act irrationally toward the individual, thus beginning the cycle again.
1. I must be loved or approved from all significant people.
2. I must be thoroughly competent, adequate, and achieving in all possible respects.
3. Certain people are bad, wicked, or villainous, and they should be severely blamed and punished for their sins.
4. Things are awful, terrible, and catastrophic when I am frustrated, treated unfairly, or rejected.
5. Human unhappiness is externally caused, and I have little or no ability to control or change my negative feelings.
6. If something is or may be dangerous or fearsome, I should be terribly occupied with and upset about it.

7. It is easier to avoid facing many life difficulties and self-responsibilities than to undertake more rewarding forms of self-discipline.
8. The past is all-important, and because something once strongly affected one's life, it should do so indefinitely.
9. People and things should turn out better, and I must view things as horrible and awful if I don't find good solutions to life's grim realities.
10. Maximum human happiness can be achieved by inertia and inaction or by passively and noncommittally enjoying oneself.
11. My child is delinquent (or emotionally disturbed or mentally retarded); therefore, I'm a failure as a parent.

12. My child is emotionally disturbed (or mentally retarded); therefore, he or she is severely handicapped and will never amount to anything.

13. I cannot give my children everything they want; therefore, I am inadequate

These rigid systems of thought have patterns that lead to emotional problems.
1. People are born with the potential to be rational as well as irrational, self- constructive, and self-defeating.

2. People's tendency toward irrational thinking, self-damaging behaviors, wishful thinking, and intolerance is heightened by their culture and family.

3. People perceive, think, emote, and behave simultaneously.

4. REBT is cognitive, active, directive, homework-assigning, discipline-oriented, and likely to be effective.

5. REBT counselors value a warm relationship between client and counselor but do not believe the relationship is sufficient for change.

6. REBT counselors use role-playing, assertion training, desensitization, humor, operant conditioning, suggestion, support, and many other things to help clients change.

7. REBT maintains that most neurotic problems involve unrealistic, illogical, self- defeating thinking and that if those ideas are disputed, the thoughts can be minimized.

8. In REBT, clients learn how activating events
(A) contribute to but do not cause emotional consequences
(C) but the interpretation of the event—their unrealistic and overgeneralized beliefs
(B)—are the causes of the upsets. Clients gain insights about the A-B-C pattern, about how they have made and keep themselves upset, and that only hard work and practice will correct irrational thoughts.

9. REBT represents the contents of the mind: rationality and emotions. REBT counselors try to change people's thinking and feeling to enable them to change behavior with a new rational understanding and a new set of emotions (pp. 188-190).

10. Do not blame, damn, denigrate, or condemn people for choosing irrational ideas, inappropriate feelings, or defeating behaviors.
11. Discourage absolutes, such as must, should, always, never, and ought, in clients' thinking. There are no absolutes (pun intended).

12. Therapists definitely do not determine whether clients' ideas or behaviors are rational or irrational.
Counselors begin by asking the child to talk about the problem (Step 1)
and then reaching agreement on the goal of the session (Step 2). alerted practitioners that conflicts may arise because clients may want to change the activating event, whereas counselors may want to focus on the consequence.
Client and counselor need to reach consensus at the second step.
Counselors then ask for a specific example of the problem and assess the activating event (Step 3),

the consequences (Step 4),

and any secondary disturbances (Step 5).
At Step 6,

counselors teach the client to see the connection between beliefs, feelings, and behaviors

followed by an assessment of irrational beliefs (Step 7) with techniques such as offering hypotheses or inference chaining (a series of follow-up questions to what were you thinking) until the irrational belief is uncovered. When that happens, counselors would hear a "must," "awfulizing," "I can't stand it," or a global evalua tion

The next steps include linking the irrational belief to the disturbed emotion and behaviors and connecting healthy emotions and behaviors (Step 8)

and disputing the irrational belief (Step 9) by challenging its logic, its validity, or the purpose of the consequences that follow it. Vernon (2011) added that offering alternative rational ideas and direct teaching could also be parts of this step. Strategies for disputa- tion include logical, empirical, functional disputing, or rational alternative beliefs.

Counselors may use different styles in disputing: didactic, Socratic, metaphorical, or humorous (Seligman & Reichenberg, 2014).

Step 10 focuses on deepening the client's conviction in the rational belief by continued disputing and by asking how the person would behave differently with the rational belief (Step 11).

The client agrees to practice or rehearse new learning with REBT homework sheets that leadpeople through a disputing process or various behavioral activities. Following these steps throughout REBT sessions allows counselors to teach clients to do this for themselves