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Final- special senses
Terms in this set (99)
smell, taste, sight, hearing, equilibrium
the special sensory receptors localized and confined to ________?
___________neuron-like epithelial cells orsmall peripheral neurons that transfer sensory information to otherneurons in afferent pathways to the brain.
The taste receptors occur in the __________in the mucosa of the mouth(tongue, palate, inner cheeks) and pharynx.
__________________ small;occur over the entire surface of the tongue.
Circumvallate papillae: large; arranged in an inverted V near the back of the tongue.
Taste buds occur within the __________that covers the papillae, onthe ______________of fungiform papillae, and in the __________of thecircumvallate papillae.
epithelium; apical surface; side walls.
Each taste bud consists of three major cell types:
a) Supporting cells: most abundant; insulate the gustatory (taste) cellsfrom each other and from the surrounding epithelium of the tongue.
b) Gustatory cells: receptor cells
c) Basal cells: immature cells; regularly replace the other two celltypes
Long __________project from receptor cells and supporting cells, and extend through a_____________to the surface of the epithelium.
microvilli; taste pore.
The microvilli are bathed in ______ containing dissolved molecules that bind to the plasma membrane of the microvilli...
The cells of in taste buds are replenished every ________-_bythe division of the basal cells.
Taste information reaches the brain stemand cerebral cortex through the ________________.
_________________: transmits impulses from taste receptors in the anterior two-thirds of the tongue
Facial nerve: VII
__________________________:carries sensations from the tongue's posterior one-third
Glossopharyngeal nerve IX
The receptors for smell lie are a part of the ____________________thatcovers the superior ____________and the superior part of the nasalseptum
olfactory epithelium; nasal concha.
These receptors are bathed by ____________ that has been inhaled intothe nasal cavity.
The olfactory epithelium is a ___________________________________that contains millions of bipolar neurons called olfactory receptor cells, which are surrounded by columnar supporting cells.
pseudostratified columnar epithelium
Each receptor cell has an apical dendrite that projects to the epithelial surface and ends in a knot from which long _______________radiate.
Axons gather into nerve bundles called ________________________________________________, which penetrate the cribiform plate of theethmoid boneand enter the overlying ________________ the forebrain.
filaments of the olfactory nerve(cranial nerve I);
-In this bulb...the olfactory nerve axons branch profusely and synapse with neurons called ____________incomplex synaptic clusters called_________.
mitral cells; glomeruli.
how many percent of all sensory receptors are in the eyes
How many percent of thecerebral cortex isinvolved in processing visualinformation
What is the function of eyebrows?
they shade the eyes from sunlight and prevent perspiration from running down the forehead from reaching the eyes.
Eyelids(palpebrae): The upper and lower lids are separated by the_________________(eye slit) and meet each other at the medial and______________ (canthi).
palpebrae fissure; angles
_________________: reddish elevation at the medial canthus
____________: connective tissue within the eyelids that serve asattachment sites for obicularis oculi
Tarsal plates: connective tissue within the eyelids that serve asattachment sites for ________________
_________: project from the free margin of each eyelid.
_____________: modified sebaceous glands embedded in the tarsal plates; produces oil that spreads over the entire surface of the eye...slowing the evaporation of water.
______________: associated with thehair follicles of eyelashes
Infection of tarsal gland results in a cyst called a _________("swelling"),
infection of the ciliary glands is called a__________
The _____________ a vascularize transparent mucous membrane that covers the inner surfaces of the eyelids and folds back over the anterior surface of the eye:
____________________: covers the inner surfaces of the eyelids
_________________: a very thin membrane that covers the white of theeye but not the cornea.
When the eye is closed, the slit like space that forms between the eye surface and the eyelids is the________________.
The conjunctiva consists of a ___________________ epitheliu underlain by a thin lamina propria of loose connective tissue.Conjunctiva-Contains scattered ____________ that perform the main function ofconjunctiva...secreting a lubricating mucus that prevents the eye from
Stratified columnar; Goblet cells
______________: inflammation of the the conjunctiva that causesthem to appear red.
produces, distributes, and removes tears
lacrimal glands, canals, sac, duct.
tear from eye to nasal cavity.
The lacrimal secretion contains a ________, an antibacterial enzyme that cleans and protects the eye surface as it moistens and lubricates it
superior, inferior, medial, lateral, control movement of the eye.
three tunics of the eye
fibrous, vascular, sensory
The outermost _______________ a protective layer composed of dense vascular connective tissue. It has two different region
The opaque white_______forms the posterior 5/6 of the tunic.
The anterior-most portion is the transparent ______, through which light enters the eye.
The junction between the cornea and sclera is called the ______.
The sclera part of the limbus contains a large vessel called _______________________that drains aqueous humor out of the eye.
the scleral venous sinus.
What is the function of cornea?
protection; allow light to pass into the eye; forms part ofthe light-bending apparatus of the eye
The cornea is richly supplied with nerve endings, most of which arepain receptors.It is avascular. It has the ability for regeneration.
Three parts of the vascular tunic
choroid, ciliary body, iris
the blood-rich nutritive layer, highly pigmented layer that forms the posterior 5/6 of the eye.
- The blood vessels nourish the other tunics
- The brown color is due to the presence of melanin which helps absorb light...preventing light from scattering within the eye and creating visual confusion.
thickened ring of tissue that encircles the lens. composed of smooth muscle called ciliary muscle which act to focus the lens
posterior surface of the ciliary body
ciliary zonule (suspensory ligament)
Attached around entire circumference of the lens
the most anterior part of the vascular tunic; visible colored part of the eye
-Base is attached to the ciliary body
_____: the round, central opening of the iris.-Allows light to enter the eye
-__________: pigmented cells on the posterior surface of the iris +pigment cells in the body of the iris
-_________: pigmented cells on the posterior surface of the iris + nopigmentin the body of the iris
__________: pigmented cells on the posterior surface of the iris +some pigment cells in the body of the iris
sensory tunic (retina)
(two- layered) Outer layer stores vitamin A for photoreceptor cells, Inner layer contains all the photoreceptor cells
pigmented layer of retina
single layer of melanocytes
neural layer of retina
contains the photoreceptors, rods and cones, which begin the chain of electrical events that result in vision.
macula lutea (yellow spot)
Lateral to blind spot, high cone concentration
area consisting of a small depression in the retina containing cones and where vision is most acute
rods and cones
two types of photoreceptors, Rods- gray tones. Cones-color receptors
light must passthrough this layer the bipolarneuron layer to reach and exciterods and cones.
the nerve that carries neural impulses from the eye to the brain
optic disc (blind spot)
*site where optic nerve leaves the eye
posterior segment (cavity)
filled with a clear gel called vitreous humor that transmits light, supports the posterior surface of the lens, holds the retina firmly against the pigmented layer, and contributes to intraocular pressure
contains aqueous humor
function of hearing
outer and middle ear
function of hearing and equilibrium
external ear, collect and directs sound waves
external acoustic meatus
Canal leading to eardrum and middle ear
The eardrum. A structure that separates the outer ear from the middle ear and vibrates in response to sound waves.
air-filled space containing auditory ossicles: malleus, incus, stapes
membrane that covers the opening between the middle ear and inner ear
tensor tympani muscle and stapedius muscle.
two skeletal muscles occur in the middle ear cavity.
connects middle ear to pharynx
three parts of the bony labyrinth
semicircular canals, vestibule, cochlea
Three main parts of membranous labyrinth
a) semicircular ducts, b) utricle and saccule, c) cochlear duct
membranous labyrinth is filled with
bony labyrinth is filled with
Vestibule: the central cavity of the bony labyrinth. Suspended within its perilymph are the _______("leather bag") and _______("little sac").
a spot of sensory epithelium found in both the utride and saccule
The macula contain receptor cells that monitor the position of the head when the head is held still.
These receptor cells also monitor straight-line changes in the speed and direction of head movements.
Each macula is a patch of epithelium containing columnar ________________andscattered receptors called __________, whichsynapse with sensory fibers of the _______________.
supporting cells, hair cells and vestibular nerve.
The hairs are embedded in an overlying otolithic membrane...a jellylike disc that contains heavy crystals of calcium carbonate called ______("ear stones").
___________________ (anterior, posterior, and lateral): house receptors for rotational acceleration of the head...lie posterior and lateral to the to the vestibule.
_________________: snakes through each semicircular canal
-houses a structure called a _________________... has an epitheliumthat contains supporting cellsand receptor hair cells
The crista ampullaris measures_________________________________of the head.
The hairs project into a tall,jellylike mass that resembles apointed cap...called the ______.
The cochlear duct contains
receptors for hearing.
Vestibular Membrane of the cochlear duct
the roof of the cochlear duct
basilar membrane of the cochlear duct
the floor of the cochlear duct.
The ____________________is the receptor epithelium for hearing andconsists of supporting cellsand the inner-true hair cells and outer hair cells(receptor cells).
spiral organ of corti
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