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Terms in this set (171)
One of the most important changes in the fifth edition of the DS
creation of autism spectrum disorder (ASD)
What is Autism Spectrum Disorder?
Autism is a complex neurological disorder that typically appears during the first three years of life and lasts throughout a person's lifetime.
The latest data of autism statistics says:
1 in 68 American children
What is the primary reason to obtain diagnosis?
diagnosis is to help determine appropriate treatment and education.
Are there medical tests for diagnosing autism?
No medical test
Why are Autism Rates Climbing?
Changes in diagnostic practices. Increased awareness Social factors (Advanced parental age) Almost half of the increase is still unexplained
Risk of recurrence autism
If parents have a child with some form of autism, there is a 1 in 5 chance (20%) chance that their next child will have autism too
The chance of twins having autism is far higher when twins are identical than when they are fraternal.
Having more than one older sibling with autism further increased the chance of diagnosis to 32%
Core Deficits of Autism Spectrum Disorder (DSM-IV criteria*)
Qualitative impairment in social interaction
Qualitative impairments in verbal and non-verbal communication
Restricted repetitive and stereotyped patterns of behavior, interests, and activities
Social concerns that are red flags for autism
Not responsive to other people's facial expressions/feelings
Lack of initiation of activity or social play
Does not show typical interest in, or play near peers
Appears deaf at times
Qualitative impairment in nonverbal communication
Delay or absence of spoken language
primarily a medical term that is used to describe how mental disorders co-occur with one another. More often in children and adolescents.
Comorbidity - What are They?
• ADHD • DISRUPTIVE BEHAVIOR DISORDERS (OPPOSITIONAL DEFIANT AND CONDUCT DISORDERS) • MOOD DISORDERS • ANXIETY DISORDERS • PTSD/ACUTE STRESS DISORDER • ADJUSTMENT DISORDERS WITH ANXIETY, DEPRESSION, MIXED EMOTIONS, AND CONDUCT • PHYSICAL AND OTHER COMORBIDITIES
What is ABA?
"Applied Behavior Analysis is the science in which procedures derived from the principles of behavior are systemically applied to improve socially significant behavior to a meaningful degree and to demonstrate experimentally that the procedures employed were responsible for the improvement of behavior" Cooper, Heron, and Heward (1987). • Which means ABA is a scientific approach for improving socially important behaviors
Investigates socially significant behaviors with immediate importance to the participant behaviors targeted for change are socially significant (ABC)
Measurable and observable, quantifiable, socially significant
data driven, a function between treatment and behavior is evident
Precise measurement of the actual behavior in need of improvement ---documents that it was the participant's behavior that changed Applied interventions deal with measurable behavior (or reports if they can be validated).
Demonstrates experimental control over the occurrence and non-occurrence of the behavior (a functional relation is demonstrated)
Applied interventions require an objective demonstration that the procedures caused the effect
Written description of all procedures in the study is sufficiently complete and detailed to enable others to replicate it Applied interventions are described well enough that they can be implemented by anyone with training and resources.
Improves behavior sufficiently to produce practical results for the participant(s), ---Improvements in behavior must reach clinical or social significance, Extent to which changes in the target behavior(s) result in noticeable changes
Applied interventions produce strong, socially important effects are the effects large enough to be socially significant
Behavior change interventions are derived from basic principles of behavior Applied interventions arise from a specific and identifiable theoretical base rather than being a set of packages or tricks
provides behavior change that lasts over time, appears in environments other than the one in which the intervention that initially produced it was implemented, and spreads to other behaviors not directly treated by the intervention Applied interventions are designed from the outset to operate in new environments and continue after the formal treatments have ended
(Setting, individual factors) • An event that precedes the occurrence of the behavior of interest. • Antecedent events set the occasion for a response to occur
All of the actions that living organisms make that are observable and measurable; the specific way the individual acts. • Behaviors are affected by both antecedents and consequences
The event(s) that immediately follow the behavior of interest. • A stimulus that is added or removed that alters the future probability of the behavior
when applied to data collection, is a clear, concise detailed definition of a measure.
Objective • Refer only to the observable • Clear • Readable and unambiguous • Complete • Delineate boundaries of definition
INCREASES behavior, a behavior is more likely to occur in the future
environmental events that occur after a behavior •
increases the likelihood of that behavior occurring in the future. •
Must serve to increase the occurrences of a particular behavior •
A basic principle of behavior analysis, one of the most important! •
Reinforcement is in the eye of the beholder • Must be used contingently to increase a behavior •
Must be used immediately to be most effective •
Typically used continuously when teaching a new behavior
B-01 positive reinforcement
adding/presenting something the student values to increase the likelihood of behavior.
B-01 negative reinforcement
removing something from the student that is aversive to increase the likelihood of behavior.
How do we know if something is a reinforcer?
D-02 Motivating Operant MO/Establishing Operant EO
Extent to which a learner continues to perform the target behavior after a portion or all of the intervention is terminated
AKA durability, behavioral persistence
performance and adaptation of a behavior under conditions different than the setting in which is was originally learned. • the trained behavior occurs at other times or in other places without having to be retrained completely in those particular times or places, or if functionally related behaviors occur that were not trained
ex; several species of fish
B-02 Preference Assessment
Philosophy of normalization
select target's that are as culturally normal as possible
(no longer reinforcing) the behavior we want to decrease
process of applying quantitative labels to observe events using standard set of rules
A-02 continuous measurement
measured that all instances of response of interest is detected during observation period
A-02 What are two types of continuous measurement
frequency and duration
A-02 temporal extent:
(Behavior occurs for a period of time)duration -beginning to end of response
A-02 frequency is;
beginning and end response can be easily detected
(data)# of responses
A-02 temporal locus: response latency
measure of time between environmental event and a response -measuring how long it takes for a behavior to begin after a specific verbal demand or event has occurred
Ex: Time between event and reaction
A-02 temporal locus: interresponse time
time that passes between occurrences of the inappropriate behavior. measure time between end of one response & beginning of the next response
- measures time between 2 response
trials of criterion
measure # of response opportunity needed to achieve predetermined level of performance
physical form or shape of a behavior
force or intensity with which a response is emitted (conducted)
A-02 discontinuous measurement
measurement in which some instances of the response may not be detected
measure instances of behavior
observing whether a behavior occurs at any time during the interval. Once the length of an observation session is identified, the time is broken down into smaller intervals that are all equal in length. Recorded as percentage (yes/no) -record multiple behaviors -measure instances of behavior
observer is interested in behavior that occurs during the entire interval (5-10 seconds). Examples of ongoing behaviors that can be observed writing, walking, reading, or working on a given assignment. Recorded as percentage - continuous behavior (yes/no) -underestimate
A-03 momentary time sampling
Record whether the beh is occurring at the end of the interval -Recorded as percentage - continuous behavior (yes/no)
A-04 permanent product (outcome)
monitor the occurrence of problem behavior -measuring behavior after it has occurred by measuring the effect on the environment
"ex post facto"
results of measurement
- quantified form
- data collected must be graphed
A-05 line graph are
line graph include
- use different symbols
- do not connect data points
*large span of time passed
* discontinuity in time (horizontal axis)
* follow up
# of responses on ordinate against time
standard celebration chart
analyze frequency of behavior changes over time
use of empirical data to refine programs & improve learning
C-07 discrimination training
teach client to know under what conditions a behavior is likely to be reinforced or not reinforced ((The conventional procedure requires one behavior and 2 antecedent stimulus conditions. Responses are reinforced in the presence of one stimulus condition , the SD, but not in the presence of the other stimulus the S-delta; example - to teach the color red, teacher places red ball (SD) and yellow ball (S-delta) in front of student and tells student to point to red ball. If he point to red ball, he gets reinforced. If he points to yellow ball, he does not))
C-04 discrete trail training DTT
Method systematically evokes & reinforces a response by structuring the presentation of instructions & support in routine steps to show client what behavior will receive reinforcement -teaching in simplified and structured steps. Instead of teaching an entire skill in one go, the skill is broken down and "built-up" ((controlled by given an opportunity to emit the response)) method of teaching in simplified and structured steps. Instead of teaching an entire skill in one go, the skill is broken down and "built-up" using discrete trials that teach each step one at a time
C-04 discrete trail training DTT steps
1. Antecedent: tell client what to do
2. if needed provide prompt
3. client behavior
4. behavior reinforced
5. pause before next trail
C-05 naturalistic teaching procedure
incidental teaching IT
C-05 Incidental teaching IT
Using natural opportunities that are sometimes planned and sometimes unplanned
request and demanding
named or labeled
Refers to various methods for linking specific sequences of stimuli and responses to form new performances)) - teach new behaviors
- involves linking a sequence of responses, task, to the same terminal reinforcer
C-06 forward chaining
behavior identified in the task analysis are taught i their naturally occurring order
A method for teaching behavior chains that begins with the learner being prompted and taught to perform the first behavior in the task analysis; the trainer completes the remaining steps in the chain.
training only occurs on the steps previously mastered & current step (no training on steps after that)
teach 1st step
- using modeling, reinforce each correct, eventually without prompt
- once not using prompt, add 2nd step
- continue adding 1 step at a time
C-06 backward chaining
All the behaviors identified in the task analysis are initially completed by the trainer, except for the final behavior in the chain.
When the learner performs the final behavior in the sequence at the predetermined criterion level, reinforcement is delivered.
Next, reinforcement is delivered when the last and the next-to-last behaviors in the sequence are performed to criterion.
With this type of chaining, the first behavior the learner performs independently produces the terminal reinforcement.)) - start teaching the end of the chain
- when steps are mastered, decrease # of steps your doing for the client to 3 steps.
C-06 total task method or presentation
Also called total task presentation or whole task presentation
is a variation of forward chaining in which the learner receives training on each step in the task analysis during every session.
Trainer assistance is provided with any step the person is unable to perform independently, and the chain is trained until the learner is able to perform all the behaviors in the sequence to the predetermined criterion.)) demonstrated the entire task and ask client to imitate the modeled chain
affecting the environment through the behavior of some other person or the person herself (self-talk)
-Ex say dog: client says dog
doing what you see another do
client copies their name from yours
answering a question
C-10 (least to most) minimum to maximum prompting
Provide participant with an opportunity to perform the response with the least amount of assistance on each trial Participant receives greater degrees of assistance with each successive trial without a correct response )) -provide most natural prompt possible
C-10 (most to least) maximum to minimum prompting
Physically guide participant through entire performance Gradually reduce amount of physical assistance Modeling Verbal instruction Natural stimulus
- start with prompt known to evoke the behavior & gradually move on to less intrusive, natural prompt
behavior alters based on the way instructions are delivered
delay response between response
C-10 graduated guidance prompting
least to most prompting Immediately fade physical prompts Follow participant closely with hands Gradually increase distance between hands and participant)) 1st trying to evoke the behavior with natural Sd and continue to progress from least to most prompt until wanted response occurs -gradually reduce the pressure that you are applying to shadowing further and further away until the client can do the skill without physical guidance
highlighting a physical dimension (color, size, position) of a stimulus & the gradually face exaggerated dimension)) gradually moving from max prompting to minimum or no prompting
C-08 discriminative stimuli (SDrs)
A stimulus in the presence of which responses of some type have been reinforced and in the absence of which the same type of responses have occurred and not been reinforced; this is the reason that an SD increases the momentary frequency of the behavior)) antecedents to behavior that help client know when & where to engage in behavior
- Using the same word "da da" for all men
Ex:only reinforced response in the presence of the correct person
C-11 response generalization
client engaging in a different response under the same stimulus condition
Ex: How are you? Good, fine, okay
- different response, same stimulus
C-11 stimulus generalization
response remains the same, but the stimulus or stimuli changes
Ex: Looking at the face of several people, and say hello.
- different stimulus, same response
the behavior is controlled by one or more non-relevant stimuli
Ex: Table, chair out of place, client doesn't response to request
C-11 generalization more likely to occur
under similar antecedent stimuli
clients behavior occurs smoothly, rapidly, with little apparent effort
reinforce it each time it occurs
C-03 continuous reinforcement CRF
Reinforce it each time it occurs
C-03 intermittent reinforcement
when some not all, of the correct occurrences are reinforced
- once the behavior has been taught or close to fluency decrease frequency of reinforce delivered
C-03 intermittent reinforcement makes the behavior more
resistent to extinction (when it does not produce reinforcement)
natural contingencies took over control, or trapped the behavior
D-05 extinction burst
increase the clients problem behavior before it decreases
vary the reinforce delivery schedule; so the client cant predict the next reinforcer
D-03 motivational operations
- MO interventon
antecedent events that change the value of the consequence along with the immediate discriminative stimulus (SD)
Ex: Class clown, provide short hang out with friends before class
D-03 discriminative stimuli (SDs)
event that occurs before a behavior is a stimulus that 'tells" or signals what will happen if a behavior occurs
D-03 Ex: Adam goofs off, Johnny laughs. What is the SDr for goofing off?
Johnny: remove Johnny
D-03 establishing operation EO/MO
a condition of deprivation or aversion that temporarily alters (usually raises) the value of a particular reinforcer. EX: food deprived makes food more of a reinforcer
behavioral momentum used when:
client engages in problem behavior to escape or avoid engaging in an aversive event (( another name for high-p request sequence))
making requests that are easy for the child before making requests that are more challenging or difficult.
reduce response demand
reduce amount of time & effort required to engage in the activity
Ex: long hw; cover much of the hw
functional skill level
performance level of client able to attain sucess
Intergrade easier items to more challenging
non-contingent reinforcement NCR
Presentation of a potential reinforcer on a fixed-time (FT) or variable-time (VT)schedule independent on occurrence of the target behavior -reduce behaviors)) provide reinforcement periodically, on a frequent basis
Ex: average every 5 minutes
non-contingent reinforcement NCR Example:
Ex: kissing child every 5 minutes
withholding or blocking whatever reinforcers are supporting the unwanted behavior - reinforcer no longer follows a bx; future bx decrease under similar circumstance
D-04 DRA differential reinforcement of alternative behavior
reinforces occurrences of a behavior that provides a desirable alternative to problem behavior but not necessarily incompatible with it)) reinforce acceptable alternative behavior & place problem behavior in extinction
D-04 DRO differential reinforcement of other behavior (zero occurrence)
delivers a reinforcer whenever the problem behavior has not occurred during or at specific times
"reinforcement for not responding"))
- reinforce after behavior has not occured
D-04 differential reinforcement DR
Reinforcing a behavior when it occurs under specific conditions and not other (to help the client discriminate when & when not to engage in the behavior) or when we reinforce a specific behavior under certain conditions but not other behaviors -only the appropriate response (or behavior you wish to increase) and applying extinction to all other responses
D-04 DRA helps
teach the client what to do to get what they want in a more productive way
D-04 DRI differential reinforcement of incompatible behavior
A procedure for decreasing problem behavior in which reinforcement is delivered for a behavior that is topographically incompatible with the behavior targeted for reduction and withheld following instances of the problem behavior (e.g., sitting in seat is incompatible with walking around the room).
Ex: cant flap hands if holding ball
Ex: Goal, remain seated. Reinforce in-seat behavior, not out-of-seat behavior
Ex: earn reinforcement for keeping hands to self
D-04 DRD Differential reinforcement of diminishing rates
provide reinforcement when the rate of the behavior is equal to or less than a specified limit
- reinforce improvement or fewer infractions per unit of time
Ex: praise after every 2x, praise after every 1x
D-04 DRL Differential reinforcement of lower rates
A schedule of reinforcement in which reinforcement (a) follows each occurrence of the target behavior that is separated by a minimum interresponse time (IRT), or (b) is contingent on the number of responses within a period of time not exceeding a predetermined criterion. Practitioners use DRL schedules to decrease the rate of behaviors that occur too frequently but should be maintained in the learner's repertoire.
consequence that decreases the future likelihood of the behavior
- severe behavior
B-01 negative punishment
A response behavior is followed immediately by the removal of a stimulus (or a decrease in the intensity of the stimulus), that decreases the future frequency of similar responses under similar conditions. Sometimes called type II punishment
B-01 response cost
form of punishment in which the loss of a specific amount of reinforcement occurs, contingent on an inappropriate behavior and results in the decreased probability of the future occurrence of that behavior
+moderate to rapid effects
+can be easily combined with other procedures
Ex- money taken away with traffic ticket
B-01 bonus response cost
remove points or tokens from a pool of bonus reinforcers that the client has not earned
removing access to reinforcers, contingent on the occurrence of the severe infraction, for short period of time (2min) no longer than 5 min
B-01 inclusion timeout
least intrusive/aversive form of timeout and most common used.
- restrict the client from participating in the ongoing activity due to misbehavior.
B-01 contingent observation
the person is repositioned within an existing setting such that observation of ongoing activities remains, but access to reinforcers is lost
(sit away from group)
B-01 exclusionary timeout
person is removed from the environment for a specified period, contingent on the occurrence of the targeted inappropriate behavior
B-01 nonexclusion timeout
participant is not completely removed physically from the time-in setting
B-01 restrained timeout
restrained contingent to problem behavior
B-01 positive punishment
add an aversive consequence following behavior, reduce likelihood behavior occurring in the future
B-01 negative practice
practice the unwanted behavior repeatedly
- caught smoking; smoke several times in a row; smoking becomes aversive or a punishing experience
B-01 positive practice
repeatedly practicing a positive alternative behavior contingent upon the infraction
Ex: mark wall, mark paper
B-01 corporal punishment
protocol provides step-by-step guide how to deal with serious behaviors that threatens to harm either the client, others, or property
crisis management 3 elements:
1. threat to self
2. element of surprise
3. short decision time
assurance that all program implementers implement the intervention as planned
shaping; differentially reinforce clients closer & closer approximation toward approaching an object of fear
systematically and differentially reinforcing successive approximations to a terminal behavior; used to help learners acquire new behaviors
B-02 single-stimulus assessment/presenation
present stimuli one at a time
- record interaction/no interaction
B-02 paired-stimulus assessment
simultaneous presenting 2 stimuli; the observer records which of the 2 the learner chooses; each stimulus is matched randomly with all other stimuli in the set. Data shows how many times each stimulus was chosen; stimuli are then rank ordered (high-low)
B-02 multiple-stimulus assessment with MSWor without replacement MSWO
person chooses a preferred stimulus from an array of 3 or more stimuli; by presenting multiple stimuli together, time is saved 1.multiple stimulus pre.
with replacement MSW:
stimulus selected remains in array 2. multiple stimulus pre.
without replacement MSWO
stimulus selected removed from array
- less time to complete
B-02 free operant assessment
place a # of items out and let client interact with them, record interaction time with each
data are consistent (each recorded is recording the same behavior the same way)
data is accurate (using ounces,lb,etc)
maintenance and generalization factors and potential reinforcers or punishers
B-04 3-term contingencies
The amount of time in which behavior occurs (it is the basic measure of temporal extent) bx that is hard to tell beginning or end
total # of response over a period of time - response are free operant
the opportunity to engage in a high-frequency or preferred behavior (i.e. playing video games) as a reinforcer for a low-frequency behavior (completing homework).
Discrimination is a term used in both classical and operant conditioning. It involves the ability to distinguish between one stimulus and similar stimuli. In both cases, it means only responding to certain stimuli but not to those that are similar.
is a process for documenting the number of times a behavior occurs Behavior must have discrete beginning and ending
Functional behavioral assessment (FBA)
is a variation on procedures originally developed to ascertain the purpose or reason for behaviors displayed by individuals with severe cognitive or communication disabilities
essential components of a skill acquisition plan
include a description of the target skill being taught, materials needed for teaching, prompting strategies to be used, the consequences for correct or incorrect responding, mastery criteria, reinforcement strategies, and plan for generalization and maintenance.
Prepare for the session as required by the skill acquisition plan.
To prepare for the session, have your materials and the environment set up so that you can run the plan as designed. Also, be sure to have reinforcement items easily accessible.
refers to reinforcement that gets its value by being paired with another reinforcer (It is "conditioned.").
-may include things such as tokens, money, praise, grades, toys, etc
refers to reinforcement that does not need to be learned or conditioned.
For example may include food, drink, escape from pain, and physical attention
a list of written out steps that contain all of the components necessary to complete the task.
stimulus fading procedure
Superimposition involves pairing two stimuli in which one of the stimuli will invoke the correct response, and then gradually fading away one of the stimuli.
is a phenomenon that occurs when an organism behaves in one way in the presence of a given stimulus and another way in its absence
D-01: Identify the essential components of a written behavior reduction plan.
Define target behavior, function of behavior, setting, proactive strategies, reactive strategies, data, setting event, strategies to modify the environment
4 common functions of behavior
Escape/Avoidance: The individual behaves in order to get out of doing something he/she does not want to do.
Attention Seeking: The individual behaves to get focused attention from parents, teachers, siblings, peers, or other people that are around them.
Seeking Access to Materials: The individual behaves in order to get a preferred item or participate in an enjoyable activity.
Sensory Stimulation: The individual behaves in a specific way because it feels good to them.
the ABA consultant determines the number of independent correct responses over a number of days needed for a target to be considered mastered (learned)- eg one independent response over a period of x days.
C-03 unconditioned reinforcer
A stimulus change that increases the frequency of any behavior that immediately precedes it irrespective of the organism's learning history with the stimulus. These are the product of the evolutionary development of the species (phylogeny). Also called primary or unlearned reinforcer
C-03 conditioned reinforcer
A stimulus that gains its reinforcing power through its association with a primary reinforcer; also known as secondary reinforcer
an established relationship between an A,B,C
alter the effectiveness of some stimulus, object, or event as a reinforcer, and
alter the current frequency of all behavior that has been reinforced by that stimulus, object, or event
-behavior more/less likely
An analysis of the purposes (functions) of problem behavior, wherein antecedents and consequences representing those in the person's natural routines are arranged within an experimental design so that their separate effects on problem behavior can be observed and measured; typically consists of 4 conditions; 3 test conditions - contingent attention, contingent escape, and alone - and a control condition in which problem behavior is expected to be low because reinforcement is freely available and no demands are placed on the person
Natural Free-Operant Observation
Observing and recording what activities the target person engages in when he/she has unrestricted choice of activities No response requirements All stimuli available within sight and reach Items are never removed
Contrived Free-Operant Observation
Provide learner with noncontingent exposure to each item prior to observation - for sampling purposes Place all items in view and within reach Observe for a set period of time and record the duration of time target person engages with each stimulus item
records the bx throughout the day; can be used to compare when it occurs more or less
the ABA consultant determines the number of independent correct responses over a number of days needed for a target to be considered mastered (learned)- eg one independent response over a period of x days
A conditioned reinforcer that as a result of having been paired with many other reinforcers does not depend on an establishing operation for any particular form of reinforcement for its effectiveness.
FR fixed ratio
Reinforcement occurs at fixed response intervals: (FR 5 = giving reinforcement after every fifth response)
VR variable ratio
delivery of reinforcement is based on a particular average number of responses. (e.g., on a VR 10 schedule an average of 10 responses must be emitted for reinforcement, but the number of responses required following the last reinforced response might range from 1 to 30 or more).
-Bx becomes most resistant to extinction
FI fixed interval
reinforcement is delivered for the first response emitted following the passage of a fixed duration of time since the last response was reinforced (e.g., on an FI 3-minute schedule, the first response following the passage of 3 minutes is reinforced)
VI variable interval
providing reinforcement for the first correct response following the elapse of variable duration of time occurring in a random or unpredictable order. VI produce a low - moderate, steady response rates (pop quizz at unpredictable times). The larger the average interval, the lower the overall rate of response
OTHER SETS BY THIS CREATOR
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OTHER QUIZLET SETS
305 Midterm 2
learning final final
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