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a chain of high plateaus near the Guiana Highlands


a plains area in Northeast Colombia and western Venezuela

Gran Chaco

a hunting land between the Andes and the Brazilian Highlands


wide grasslands in Argentina

tree line

the line of elevation above which trees do not grow

El Nino

an event in which the eastern Pacific Ocean is warmer and the climate is much wetter than normal

La Nina

when Pacific waters are colder than normal

tar sands

rock or sand layers that contain oil


South America's greatest mountain range


an elevated plain between the Andes' two great mountain ranges

Guiana Highlands

ancient eroded highlands in southern Venezuela

Brazilian Highlands

highlands which extend inland along Brazil's southeastern coast

Amazon River

the world's largest river in volume


a semiarid landform south of the Pampas which stretches all the way to Tierra del Fuego

Tierra del Fuego

an island divided between Argentina and Chile

Orinoco River

one of South America's great river systems, which drains the western Guiana Highlands and the Llanos, and empties into the Atlantic Ocean

Parana River

the longest river in South America, which flows into the Rio de la Plata estuary between Argentina and Uruguay

Rio de la Plata

an estuary between Argentina and Uruguay

Atacama Desert

the driest region of South America, in northern Chile and southern Peru


small farms with poor land


an organization to expand trade, improve transportation, and reduce tariffs among member countries

ranchos, callampas, favelas

Venezuelan, Chilean, and Brazilian names for slums that surround major cities


when a country has no border on the ocean


the use of fear and violence as a political force


a native group of the Colombian Andes


South America's greatest early civilization


large estates spread across the Pampas

buffer state

a country between two larger, more powerful countries


a tropical plant with starchy roots

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