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refers to the mechanical and chemical breakdown of foods so that nutrients can be absorbed by cells.
the inner layer of the alimentary canal which is lined with epithelium attached to connective tissue; it protects tissues of the canal and carries on secretion and absorption.
the next layer of the alimentary canal made up of loose connective tissue housing blood and lymph vessels and nerves; it nourishes the surrounding layers of the canal.
consists of inner circular fibers and outer longitudinal fibers that propel food through the canal.
the outer layer composed of visceral peritoneum that protects underlying tissues and secretes serous fluid to keep the canal from sticking to other tissues in the abdominal cavity.
mixing movements and propelling movements
the motor functions of the alimentary canal are of two types
include a wavelike motion called peristalsis, which is caused by contraction behind a mass of food as relaxation allows the mass to enter the next segment of the tube.
the first portion of the alimentary canal; it functions to receive food and begins mechanical digestion by mastication.
highly mobile structures that surround the mouth opening; contain sensory receptors that help to judge the temperature and texture of food.
a thick, muscular organ covered by mucous membrane with taste buds within papillae; it is attached to the floor of the mouth by the frenulum.
associated with the palate in the back of the mouth; because they are lymphatic tissue, help to protect the body against infection.
(adenoids), another lymphatic tissue; located on the posterior wall of the pharynx, above the border of the soft palate.
How many sets of teeth develop in sockets within the alveolar processes of the maxillary and mandibular bones?
The _____ primary teeth are shed in the order they appeared and are replaced by _____ secondary teeth.
Through the actions of chewing, teeth break food into smaller pieces, beginning ________.
when the actual membrane that holds the tooth becomes inflamed and starts losing bone and teeth are loosening
what the salivary gland secretes; moistens and dissolves food particles, binds them together, allows tasting, helps to cleanse the mouth and teeth, and begins carbohydrate digestion.
Salivary glands contain _____ cells that produce a watery fluid with amylase, and mucous cells that produce lubricating and binding mucus.
Salivary glands receive _____ that triggers the production of a large volume of saliva at the sight or smell of food.
lying in front of the ear, are the largest of the major salivary glands; they secrete a clear, watery fluid rich in amylase.
inferior to the tongue, are the smallest of the major salivary glands and secrete a saliva that is thick and stringy.
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