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Registered Behavior Technician - Part 2
Terms in this set (77)
Examples of expanding motor skills by chaining them together.
Tying shoes, brushing teeth, and writing name.
Teaching two or three actions together work on
increasing and working memory.
Teaching imitation sequence
Probe - present model - prompt - gradually fade - reinforce all approximations - mix up the actions with other mastered actions.
Imitation skills may need to be
Broken down into basic components, directly taught, and reinforced.
Imitation behavior ABC form
A - stimulus involving motor movement by a model, B - non-verbal and mimics the movements of the model, C - reinforcement of the imitative behavior.
End goal of imitative skills training
The student imitates others in his natural environment.
Examples of SD's for an imitation skill
"Do this" "Copy me" "Do what I'm doing"
SD's for an imitation skill should be
Non-specific to the motion being performed to ensure that we are targeting imitative skills and not receptive or listener response skills.
Staying seated, attending to the teacher, keeping hands off materials, scanning materials, tracking the teachers fingers, and looking at the object when prompted to "look at this."
Four areas of Motor Imitation
Toy/Object Imitation, Gross Motor Imitation, Fine Motor Imitation, and Oral Motor Imitation.
Oral Motor Imitation
Involves movements of the mouth, tongue, lips, face, and head. Pre-requisites to verbal imitation and speech programs for non-vocal learners.
Choosing Imitation targets that are being addressed in other program areas . . .
can make transfer of skills more natural.
Refers to the emission of a behavior that is topographically similar and temporally proximal to the behavior of a model. Means to mimic another person's behavior. The most fundamental means of acquiring new behaviors and knowledge for humans.
A dog walks in front of a boy, he says, "Look a dog."
Word comes from contact, meaning coming in contact with the environment through one of our senses. The antecedent is a non-verbal stimulus evoked by non-verbal sensory stimulus. See, hear, smell, feel, or taste.
Mands can result in getting
tangible items, such as food or actions, information that is valuable, or attention that one wants.
Demand, command, ask, or request. It is usually the first operant to develop in normally developing children.
The mand is occasioned by
Skinner's analysis of verbal behaviors emphasizes _____________ in addition to the form of language.
Nodding yes, praise, social attention.
Skinner believed that learning a word in one operant . .
May not transfer to other operants.
Another term for listener Responding
Involves responding non-verbally to mands of another by touching a picture or object when it is named or looking at an item when it is named, and following directions.
The listener response does not include
Vocal verbal behaviors such as talking, sign language, or any other form of verbal behavior.
Motivation to gain access to something. Are very important to increase the use of mands. Altering the environment to create frequent and valuable motivation to increase the success of mand training.
Responding to conversational questions, the antecedent is a verbal stimulus (not necessarily vocal) and reinforcement is non-specific.
A woman saying "Cynthia" after being asked, "What is your name?"
Directly benefits the speaker.
Mand, asking for something, then getting it gives immediate reinforcement.
Occur when a person is repeating what has been heard. There is a vocal SD and the consequence is non-specific reinforcement. (anything that increases the behavior that is not the object being said.)
Mand, Echoic, Tact, Intraverbal, Imitation (mimetic), Listener Response
Wrote Verbal Behavior and broke down language into verbal operants.
An airplane flies overhead and a girl says, "airplane."
Tact, sees it, does not want it, says it
Pairing reinforcement with vocalizations so talking alone provides reinforcement. Repeated paring of a neutral stimulus with a reinforcing stimulus, neutral stimulus becomes conditioned as a reinforcer, and based on the theory of automatic reinforcement.
Selecting targets for Echoic Training
Sounds/words the student is already able to produce, developmentally easy sounds, sounds/words associated with reinforcers thus functional for the learner, and sounds/words that are pertinent to play activities and interests.
Important to teach in verbal imitation training
Volume, Pitch, and Inflection
Procedure to shape articulation
Two step procedures for Stimulus-Stimulus Pairing
The target sound "buh" is made while a toy is presented , the sound "buh" becomes paired with reinforcement. Speech sound stimulus is paired with a reinforcing stimulus and speech sound will become correlated with reinforcement.
When a _________________ such as parent vocalizations are paired with a ____________________ such as food, the vocalizations may become reinforcing themselves.
Karen is singing, stops and says, "say aah". Once the learner repeats "aah" she begins singing again.
An anticipatory game.
In the beginning level learner you may first want to target . . .
Sounds or parts of words.
When children produce sounds that resemble those produced by their parents, these sounds may function as:
ABC of Echoic Behavior
Verbal Stimulus "Candy", Verbal Response "Candy", non-specific reinforcement.
Apraxia of Speech
A motor-speech programming disorder resulting in difficulty coordinating the oral-motor movements necessary to produce and combine phonemes to form syllables, words, phrases, and sentences.
Receptive Language includes
Touching or looking at a picture or object when it is named, following one-step directions, and following multiple- component directions such as a two or three step directions.
Listener Responding for Function Feature and Class (LRFFC)
Receptively identify items based on their feature, function, or class.
Attributes the item has, texture, color, shape, sound.
Action the object can do.
A collection of items that belong to the same group, such as a category.
Receptive Identification of Body Parts
A good receptive skills program for early learners.
SD's should be presented in various ways to
An array in receptive identification should
Increase in size and begin neat then move to messy, more natural.
SD's for Listener Responding
"Touch car" "Show me the wheel" "Give me the circle"
When teaching receptive identification it is useful to begin with identification of
Receptive Instruction Program
1. Give instructions to perform preferred tasks in context. 2. Give instructions to perform tasks out of context. 3. Start teaching simple directions that are neutral and eventually increase the number and complexity of instructions.
ABC of Receptive Language
Another person's verbal behavior, Non-verbal response, Non-specific reinforcement.
"Give me the one you jump on."
An example of Function.
Listener Responding involves responding
When you alter the environment to create motivation for something, you are
Contriving and capturing motivating operations.
You can transfer the control of the mand to the MO alone by . . .
Systematically fading your prompts.
A trial that is presented after a prompted trial where the initial prompt is faded so that the learner's response is eventually evoked by the MO and not the prompt.
Sanitize the Environment
Prevent free access to items the student wants so they can mand for it, clear environment of free access to things they like, putting toys out of reach, put in hard to open containers, limit access to items they need, puposefully leaving out essential items from an activity.
Modes of communication for mand training
Spoken language, sign language, picture exchange, keyboarding, and devices with voice output.
ABC for a mand
Kari wants to know where her doll is, she asks her brother, "Where is my doll?", He says, "Out in the garden."
Typical children mand
Hundreds of times per hour.
You can track your learners progress in mands by
Taking frequency data and graphing the results to be analyzed over time.
There is motivation when
The individual is looking intently at the item, the individual is reaching for the item, or the individual is moving toward the item.
When a learner is first learning to mand avoid teaching
Generalized words like "more" or "eat", carrier phrases such as "I want" or "Can I have", or mands for yes and no.
Important benefits for mand training
Can decrease problem behavior, can assist in developing the value of social interaction, can help condition teachers as reinforcers, benefit learner, increases conversation skills, and helps establish speaker as well as listener roles,
Choosing Mand targets
Do a preference assessment to determine what motivates your learner, does the child consistently want the item?, can I contrive situations where my learner will want the item?, is the word easy enough to produce -- either vocally or physically if using sign?, and is it repeatable -- can I do it over and over to provide ample teaching trials?
Teaching to mand can decrease problem behavior because
They can now use functional communication to get their needs met instead of problem behaviors.
A mand is controlled by
If there is no motivation
There is no Mand
Toy / Object Imitation
Useful when teaching play skills, a good place to start teaching imitation because imitation involving the manipulation of a physical object usually produces discrete sensory feedback. This is often enjoyable to the student and is thus easier to learn. Begin with two identical sets of toys so that the teacher and student each have a set. SD = nonspecific "do this".
Using a physical gesture to indicate the desired response.
Fine Motor Imitation
Imitation of detailed, precise movements, may use materials, SD = nonspecific "do this" Ex, pointing, giving thumbs up, squeezing play dough.
Gross Motor Imitation
Imitation of body movements, no materials are necessary. SD = nonspecific "copy me" "clap hands" "touch nose" or "touch head"
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