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is anything that is of value to a consumer and can be offered through a voluntary marketing exchange
are groups of associated items, such as items that consumers use together or think of as part of a group of similar products
is an assortment of items that the customer sees as reasonable substitutes for one another or are used under similar circumstances
are the names, terms, designs, symbols, or any other features that identify one seller's good or service as distinct from those of other sellers
the set of assets and liabilities linked to a brand that add to or subtract from the value provided by the product or service
is one in which there is a contractual arrangement between firms, whereby one firm allows another to use its brand name, logo, symbols, and/or characters in exchange for a negotiated fee
measures how many consumers in a market are familiar with the brand and what it stands for and have an opinion about that brand
reflect the mental links that consumers make between a brand and its key product attributes, such as a logo, slogan, or famous personality
the set of human characteristics associated with a brand, which as symbolic or self-expressive meanings for consumers
occurs when a consumer buys the same brand's product or service repeatedly over time rather than buy from multiple suppliers within the same category
manufacturer brands (national brands)
are owned and managed by the manufacturer. (Nike, Coca-Cola, KitchenAid)
offer the consumer a private label that is comparable to, or even superior to , a manufacturer's brand quality, sometimes with modest price savings
imitate the manufacturer's brand in appearance and packaging, generally are perceived as lower quality, and are offered at lower prices
is a brand that is developed by a national brand vendor, often in conjunction with a retailer, and is sold exclusively by the retailer
corporate brand (family brand)
the use of a firm's own corporate name to brand all of its product lines and products
the use of the same brand name for new products being introduced to the same or new markets
occurs when the brand extension adversely affects consumer perceptions about the attributes the core brand is believed to hold
is a contractual arrangement between firms, whereby one firm allows another to use its brand name, logo, symbols, and/or characters in exchange for a negotiated fee
brand repositioning (rebranding)
the strategy in which marketers change a brand's focus to tarter new markets or realign the brand's core emphasis with changing market preferences
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