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Kidneys & Urinary System

An obstruction in the afferent arteriole would reduce the flow of blood into the


Blood vessels, nerves, and the ureter enter and leave the kidney at the


Angiotensin II does what?

stimulates aldosterone secretion.

What helps regulate absorption of calcium ions?

Vitamin D

The juxtaglomerular apparatus secretes


The renal corpuscle connects to the

proximal convoluted tubule

Water is reabsorbed by ____________.


What enzyme helps regulate blood pressure?


Most reabsorption occurs in the ________________.

proximal convoluted tubule

The functional/structural unit of the kidney is a


Which of the following functions would not be performed by the kidney?

urine storage

larger blood vessel that leads into the glomerulus

afferent arterioles

consist of glomerulus and Bowman's capsule

renal corpuscle

portions of a nephron leading away from the glomerulus consisting of tubules

renal tubule

highly coiled portion of the renal tubule

proximal convoluted tubule

descending and acending limbs of the nephron loop

loop of Henle

filtering unit of a tangled cluster of blood capillaries


shorter and straighter coiled region that empties into a collecting duct

distal convoluted tubule

saclike structure that surrounds the glomerulus

Bowman's capsule

formed from merging distal convoluted tubules in the renal cortex

collecting duct

blood vessel that leaves out of the glomerulus

efferent arterioles

What muscle is found in the bladder wall that aids in urination?


Sodium ion reabsorption occurs by ____________.

active transport

contains nephrons


perstaltic waves force urine to the bladder


reddish-brown, bean shaped organ


secrete erythropoietin


tubular organ about 25 cm long


regulate the volume, composition, and pH of body fluids


secrete the enzyme renin


different in males and females


form urine


conveys urine from bladder to outside


located retroperitoneally on either side of vertebral column against the posterior wall


hollow, distensible, muscular organ that stores urine

urinary bladder

removes metabolic waste from the blood


T/F: The main function of the nephron is to remove waste from the blood in the form of urine.


T/F: The micturition reflex is coordinated by neurons in the spinal cord


What are the two parts of a nephron?

renal corpuscle and renal tubule

T/F: A podocyte is a structure located in the arteriolar walls near the glomerulus that regulates renal blood flow.


As the osmotic pressure in the glomerulus increases, filtration ____________.


T/F: The left kidney lies slightly lower than the right one.


What 3 steps are involved in urine formation?

glomerular filtration, tubular secretion, tubular reabsorption

T/F: The kidneys extend from T10 to L2


Glucose and amino acids are reabsorbed by _____________.

active transport

What is the process by which urine is expelled from the bladder?


1st subdivision of renal pelvis into 2 or 3 tubes

major calyx

fibrous membrane surrounding the cortex which helps maintain shape and protects the kidney

renal capsule

hollow chamber on medial side of kidney

renal sinus

apex of renal pyramids containing the openings in which collecting duct empties into minor calyx

renal papillae

funnel shaped sac formed from the expanded end of a ureter

renal pelvis

forms shell around the medulla and dips between the renal pyramids

renal cortex

2nd division of renal pelvis into 8-14 tubes

minor calyx

inner kidney region consisting of renal pyramids

renal medulla

conical masses of tissue

renal pyramids

tissues of renal cortex located between renal pyramids

renal column

Trace the path of a red blood cell from the renal artery to the glomerulus: 1. interlobar artery 2. interlobular artery 3. arcuate artery 4. afferent arteriole


In __________, a person's blood is rerouted across an artifical membrane to clean it and remove substances normally excreted in urine.


Urine is about ______% water.


The renal corpuscle consists of

the glomerulus and Bowman's (glomerular) capsule.

What is the product amino acid catabolism in the liver?


What is a product of the metabolism of the purines - adenine and guanine?

uric acid

T/F: ACE converts angiotensinogen to angiotensin I.


Renin converts

angiotensinogen to angiotensin I.

Blood leaves the kidney through the _________ and joins the inferior vena cava.

renal vein

T/F: The medulla triggers thirst.


Proteins are reabsorbed by ____________.


What hormone helps control the rate of red blood cell formation?


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