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A&PII L7

Kidneys & Urinary System
STUDY
PLAY
An obstruction in the afferent arteriole would reduce the flow of blood into the
glomerulus
Blood vessels, nerves, and the ureter enter and leave the kidney at the
hilum
Angiotensin II does what?
stimulates aldosterone secretion.
What helps regulate absorption of calcium ions?
Vitamin D
The juxtaglomerular apparatus secretes
renin
The renal corpuscle connects to the
proximal convoluted tubule
Water is reabsorbed by ____________.
osmosis
What enzyme helps regulate blood pressure?
renin
Most reabsorption occurs in the ________________.
proximal convoluted tubule
The functional/structural unit of the kidney is a
nephron
Which of the following functions would not be performed by the kidney?
urine storage
larger blood vessel that leads into the glomerulus
afferent arterioles
consist of glomerulus and Bowman's capsule
renal corpuscle
portions of a nephron leading away from the glomerulus consisting of tubules
renal tubule
highly coiled portion of the renal tubule
proximal convoluted tubule
descending and acending limbs of the nephron loop
loop of Henle
filtering unit of a tangled cluster of blood capillaries
glomerulus
shorter and straighter coiled region that empties into a collecting duct
distal convoluted tubule
saclike structure that surrounds the glomerulus
Bowman's capsule
formed from merging distal convoluted tubules in the renal cortex
collecting duct
blood vessel that leaves out of the glomerulus
efferent arterioles
What muscle is found in the bladder wall that aids in urination?
detrusor
Sodium ion reabsorption occurs by ____________.
active transport
contains nephrons
kidney
perstaltic waves force urine to the bladder
ureter
reddish-brown, bean shaped organ
kidney
secrete erythropoietin
kidney
tubular organ about 25 cm long
ureter
regulate the volume, composition, and pH of body fluids
kidney
secrete the enzyme renin
kidney
different in males and females
urethra
form urine
kidney
conveys urine from bladder to outside
urethra
located retroperitoneally on either side of vertebral column against the posterior wall
kidney
hollow, distensible, muscular organ that stores urine
urinary bladder
removes metabolic waste from the blood
kidney
T/F: The main function of the nephron is to remove waste from the blood in the form of urine.
True
T/F: The micturition reflex is coordinated by neurons in the spinal cord
True
What are the two parts of a nephron?
renal corpuscle and renal tubule
T/F: A podocyte is a structure located in the arteriolar walls near the glomerulus that regulates renal blood flow.
False
As the osmotic pressure in the glomerulus increases, filtration ____________.
decreases
T/F: The left kidney lies slightly lower than the right one.
False
What 3 steps are involved in urine formation?
glomerular filtration, tubular secretion, tubular reabsorption
T/F: The kidneys extend from T10 to L2
False
Glucose and amino acids are reabsorbed by _____________.
active transport
What is the process by which urine is expelled from the bladder?
micturition
1st subdivision of renal pelvis into 2 or 3 tubes
major calyx
fibrous membrane surrounding the cortex which helps maintain shape and protects the kidney
renal capsule
hollow chamber on medial side of kidney
renal sinus
apex of renal pyramids containing the openings in which collecting duct empties into minor calyx
renal papillae
funnel shaped sac formed from the expanded end of a ureter
renal pelvis
forms shell around the medulla and dips between the renal pyramids
renal cortex
2nd division of renal pelvis into 8-14 tubes
minor calyx
inner kidney region consisting of renal pyramids
renal medulla
conical masses of tissue
renal pyramids
tissues of renal cortex located between renal pyramids
renal column
Trace the path of a red blood cell from the renal artery to the glomerulus: 1. interlobar artery 2. interlobular artery 3. arcuate artery 4. afferent arteriole
1,3,2,4
In __________, a person's blood is rerouted across an artifical membrane to clean it and remove substances normally excreted in urine.
hemodialysis
Urine is about ______% water.
95
The renal corpuscle consists of
the glomerulus and Bowman's (glomerular) capsule.
What is the product amino acid catabolism in the liver?
urea
What is a product of the metabolism of the purines - adenine and guanine?
uric acid
T/F: ACE converts angiotensinogen to angiotensin I.
False
Renin converts
angiotensinogen to angiotensin I.
Blood leaves the kidney through the _________ and joins the inferior vena cava.
renal vein
T/F: The medulla triggers thirst.
False
Proteins are reabsorbed by ____________.
endocytosis
What hormone helps control the rate of red blood cell formation?
erythropoietin