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Cognitive behavioral therapy

Key Concepts:

Terms in this set (57)

problem list-is a comprehensive inventory of the difficulties that are explained in concrete behavioral terms. Five to eight problems may be listed in a variety of areas such as psychological, interpersonal, school, and leisure. The connections between the problems may become apparent as the list is constructed. Counselors may use a structured interview along with the child's explanation of the problem to compile the problem list.

diagnosis,- or the issue which predominates. The diagnosis will be linked to the treatment plan.

working hypothesis- allows the counselor to connect the issues on the problem list. Subsections of the hypothesis are the core beliefs, precipitating or activating situations, and origins. Core beliefs are the person's negative thoughts about self, the world, others, or the future. Precipitating situations refer to the external events that caused the symptom or problem, and origins refer to history that might be related.

strengths and assets- are the positive parts of the person's situation, what is not a problem. Things like good friends, health, a sense of humor, school success, and a strong family bond may be assets.

treatment plan- is the product of case conceptualization. It is related to the problem list and working hypothesis. The treatment plan describes the sequence and timing of interventions. It contains the goals for counseling, the obstacles to those goals, and the strategies to be used. These elements of case conceptualization provide a recipe for putting together a plan for the counseling process, giving a guide to adapting techniques for the individual child
is a type of questioning designed to promote new learning. Questions are used to clarify or define, to assist in identifying thoughts, to examine meanings, and to test the consequences of thoughts and actions. Counselors avoid questions for which they already have answers. Friedberg and McClure (2015) explain that Socratic method includes systematic questioning, inductive reasoning, and constructing universal definitions.
The method helps counselors uncover the database for children's beliefs but must be modified based on the children's responses and level of distress.

Counselors use a gentle, curious stance rather than allowing the questions to become more like an inquisition. The purpose is to encourage children to test their inferences, judgments, conclusions, and appraisals. The categories for the questions are these:

What's the evidence?
What's an alternative explanation?
What are the advantages and disadvantages?
How can I problem solve?

The outline for Socratic dialogues includes a five-part process.
1. Counselors elicit and identify the automatic thought.

2. Next, the thought is tied to the feeling and behavior.

3. Counselors then link the thinking-feeling-behavior sequence together with an empathic response.

4. Counselors collaborate with clients on the first three steps and reach an agreement to proceed.

5. The fifth step is to test the belief.

Guided discovery occurs when the counselor coaches the child in a voyage of self-discovery in which the child does his or her own thinking and draws his or her own conclusions. Guided discovery has many ingredients that vary from child to child. Those parts may be empathy, Socratic questioning, behavioral experiments, and homework.
The process is designed to cast doubt on the certainty of children's beliefs and to encourage them to discover more adaptive and functional explanations for themselves.
It requires patience and artful questioning to allow clients to build new appraisals for themselves
explained a cognitive triad that characterizes depression.
The depressed person has a negative view of self, the world, and the future.
The depressed individual considers self as inadequate, deserted, and worthless. Beck (2008) has also connected this psychological explanation of depression to its neurobiological correlates.
His explanation combines the growing evidence of brain topography with the symptoms of depression and his call for further research will be answered to clarify those connections.
Depressed children and adolescents experience distortions in attributions, self- evaluation, and perceptions of past and present events.

Depressed children exhibit more external locus of control (an indication that they feel less capable) and low self-esteem resulting from a perceived inability to succeed academically and socially.

Effective help for depressed children included training them in self-control, self-evaluation, assertiveness, and social skills.

Their social skills training included initiating and maintaining interactions and conflict resolution. The specific cognitive- behavioral techniques included relaxation, imagery, and cognitive restructuring.

Depressed children exhibit more external locus of control (an indication that they feel less capable) and low self-esteem resulting from a perceived inability to succeed academically and socially.
Effective help for depressed children included training them in self-control, self-evaluation, assertiveness, and social skills. Their social skills training included initiating and maintaining interactions and conflict resolution. The specific cognitive- behavioral techniques included relaxation, imagery, and cognitive restructuring.

Children are taught to distinguish between thoughts and feelings by teaching, role-play, and storytelling

After children under- stand that difference, discussions about the situations that bring out positive and negative moods happen.

The counselor helps the child see how thoughts may have influenced behaviors. At the same time, behavioral strategies such as activity planning, social problem-solving, or interaction skills may be used. The child practices cognitive restructuring both in and outside the sessions. Setting appropriate goals, identifying distorted thoughts, and learning to replace those cognitions with contructive thoughts and management skills, like relaxation, may be included.
(1) sustained attention and effort,
(2) inhibitory controls, and
(3) the modulation of arousal levels to meet situational demands.
She lists the most frequent behavior problems of children (from most common to least common): loss of temper, hyperactivity, fears, restlessness, sleep disorders, enuresis, food intake, nail biting, tics, and stuttering.
Her review of the literature revealed that children with behavior problems such as hyperactivity, impulsivity, and aggression tend to
(1) generate fewer alternative solutions to interpersonal problems,
(2) focus on ends or goals rather than on the intermediate steps toward obtaining them,
(3) see fewer consequences associated with their behavior,
(4) fail to recognize causes of others' behavior, and
(5) be less sensitive to interpersonal conflict.

successful applications of CBT,
such as self-assessment, self- instruction, self-reinforcement, and self-punishment.

Cognitive treatments require children's active participation in learning to identify irrational thoughts, initiate internal dialogues, halt automatic thinking, change automatic thoughts to mediated ones, and use CBT to change unwanted behavior.

CBT; she compares changing one's behavior with learning to ride a bicycle, use computers, or read and write.
Ronen identifies three keys to such learning:
(1) the knowledge of how to do it,
(2) the desire to learn and practice, and
(3) time to practice. Basically, our position is that good counselors should be able to teach children and adolescents almost any CBT skill that can be broken down into mediating steps that they understand and find meaningful to the events in their everyday lives.