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Terminology common to the principles of baking


to cook by dry heat usually in an oven


to place several ingredients in a single bowl and thoroughly mix


to distribute solid shortening into dry ingredients


to beat quickly and vigorously to incorporate air into a mixture


to force through a fine sieve to aerate dry ingredients


to mix with a spoon in a circular or rotary motion


to beat ingredients, such as shortening and sugar, until soft and creamy


to change racks and rotate 180 degrees


number of servings or amount a recipe makes


to rub the inside of a baking dish or pan with fat to keep contents from sticking


to combine a delicate or light fluffly mixture into a heavier one


to rapidly mix with a spoon, fork, wire whisk or electric mixer


the main baking ingredient which provides a protein called gluten that forms the structure of a baked product


Ingredient which adds nutrients, flavor, color, and tenderness to baked goods


Ingredient that provides sweetness and browning to baked goods


Ingredient that adds richness, flavor and tenderness


Ingredient that adds the moisture and is needed to develop the gluten

Leavening Agent

Ingredient that enables baked goods to rise and become light and porous


The type of flour that is used the most in American kitchens, which is blended from hard & soft wheat.

Leavening Agents

Examples: Baking soda, baking powder, air, & yeast


An area of concentrated heat that can produce uneven baking and browning.

Eye level

When measuring liquids, set the cup on a level surface & read the measurement here.

Spatula (leveling or straight-edge)

When measuring dry ingredients, level off the top of the cup using this.

Olive Oil

A fat usually not used for baking because of its distinctive flavor.

Cake and Pastry Flour

This flour creates the least amount of gluten


This protein creates structure & gets stronger the longer you mix.

Carbon Dioxide

Baking soda reacts chemically with acidic liquids to produce this.


Storage for this ingredient: cool, dry place, preferably in a tightly covered container

Water and Milk

The most common liquids used in baking.

Convection and Conventional Ovens

The main difference is baking temperature & cooking time

Convection Oven

Products baked in here brown faster & lose less moisture; circulates air with a fan

Greasing a Pan

use unsalted butter to avoid pan corrosion

Color/material of baking pan

has no effect on the baking process

Brown Sugar

granulated sugar coated with molasses

Vegetable oils

should be stored in a cool dry area

Solid Fats and Oils

cannot be used interchangeably

Baking SODA

Ingredient which should be stored in an open container so that air can circulate and keep the powder fresh.


proteins in this add richness and increase browning.

Whole Grain Flour

Ingredient which should be refrigerated after opening because it contains oils that may turn rancid

Cakes and breads

should be left in their pans to cool after being removed from the oven.

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