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36 terms

Social Psychology

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Social Psychology
Scientific study of how we think about, influence, and relate to one another
Attribution Theory
The theory that we tend to give a causal explanation for someone's behavior, often by crediting either the situation or the person's disposition
Fundamental Attribution Error
The tendency for observers, when analyzing another
s behavior, to underestimate the impact of the situation and to overestimate the impact of personal disposition
Attitude
Belief and feeling that predisposes one to respond in a particular way to objects, people, and events
Foot-In-The-Door Phenomenon
The tendency for people who have first agreed to a small request to comply later with larger request
Cognitive Dissonance Theory
The theory that we act to reduce the discomfort we feel when two of our thoughts are inconsistent. Ex) Our awareness of our attitudes and of our actions clash, we can reduce the resulting discomfort by changing our attitudes
Conformity
Adjusting one's behavior or thinking to coincide with a group standard
normative Social influence
Influence resulting from a person's desire to gain approval or aviod disapproval
Informational social Influence
Infleunce resulting from one's willingness to accept other's opinions about reality
Social Facilitation
Improved performance of tasks in the presence of others; occurs with simple or well-learned tasks but not with the tasks that are difficult or not yet mastered
Social Loafing
Tendency for people in a group to exert less effort when pooling their efforts toward attaining a common goal than when individually accountable (tug-of-war example)
Deindividuation
the loss of self-awareness and self-restraint occurring in group situations that foster arousal and anonymity
Group Polarization
Enhancement of a group's prevailing attitudes through discussion within the group
Groupthink
The mode of thinking that occurs when the desire for harmony in a decision-making group overrides a realistic appraisal of alternatives
Self-Fulfilling Prophecy
Occurs when one person's belief about others leads one to act in ways that induce the others to appear to confirm the belief
Prejudice
Unjustifiable attitude toward a group and its members. Prejudice generally involves stereotyped beliefs, negative feelings, and a predisposition to discrimnatory action
Stereotype
Generalized belief about group of people
Ingroup
Us-people with whom one shares a common identity
Outgroup
Them-those perceived as different or apart from one's ingroup
Ingroup Bias
Tendency to favor one's own group
Scapegoat Theory
Theory that prejudice provides an outlet for anger by providing someone to blame
Just-World Phenomenon
Tendency of people to believe the world is just and that people therefore get what they deserve and deserve what they get
Aggression
Any phsyical or verbal behavior intended to hurt or destroy
Frustration-Aggression Principal
The principle that frustration-the blocking of an attempt to achieve some goal-creates anger, which can generate aggression
Conflict
A perceived incompatibility of actions, goals, or ideas
Social Trap
A situation in which the conflicting parties, by each rationally pursuing their self-interest, become caught in mutually destructive behavior
Mere-Exposure Effect
The phenomenon that repeated exposure to novel stimuli increases liking of them
Passionate Love
Aroused state of intense positive absorption in another, usually present at beginning of love relationship
Companionate Love
Deep affectionate attachment we feel for those with whom our lives are intertwined
Equity
Condition in which pepole receive from a relationship in proportion to what they give to it
Self-Disclosure
Revealing intimate aspects of oneself to others
Altrusim
Unselfish regard for the welfare of others
Bystander Effect
Tendency for any given bystander to be less-likely to give aid if other people are present
Social Exchange Theory
Theory that our social behavior is an exchange process, aim of which is to maximize benefits and minimize costs
Superordinate Goals
Shared goals that override differences among pepole and require their cooperation
GRIT
Strategy designed to decrease international tensions