people are responsible, creative, connected, social beings who behave with purpose toward a goal. While Freud attempted to interpret all behaviors and problems as extensions of sex, pleasure, and the death instinct, Adler believed that all people develop some sense of inferiority because they are born completely helpless and remain that way for a rather long childhood. Such feelings of inferiority may be exaggerated by body or organ defects (real or imaginary); by having older and more powerful siblings; or by parental neglect, rejection, or pampering. One way to cope with feelings of inferiority is compensation or gaining power to handle the sense of weakness. The effects of organ inferiority are reduced through development of skills, behaviors, traits, and strengths that replace or compensate for these thoughts of weakness and powerlessness. Social interest is a feeling for and cooperation with people—that is, a sense of belonging and participating with others for the common good. Ansbacher (1992) and Mosak (1991) talked about social interest as a cluster of feelings, thoughts, and actions.
Feelings connected to social interest include optimism, faith in others, and courage to be imperfect. Thoughts attached to social interest include these beliefs:
(1) assuming personal goals do not have to interfere with social welfare, and
(2) others deserve to be treated as I would like to be. Community connectedness is the sense of participating in a larger community in productive ways. Watts (2007) suggested using both terms to capture Adler's meaning. He explained that social interest is the behavioral aspects of the concept because it relates to ways the individual handles the life tasks of love, friendship, and work in the social context.
Social interest is the more concrete, workable term, whereas community feeling deals with the spiritual, universal order of a person's life and the emotional, motivational aspects of gemeinschaftsgefuhl.
Often considered the special child by the family, especially if a male child, firstborns enjoy their number-one ranking but often fear dethronement by the birth of a second child
work hard at pleasing their parents. They are likely to be conforming achievers, defenders of the faith, introverted, and well behaved.
find them- selves functioning as substitute parents in larger families. Dependable, well-organized, and responsible, the oldest child may be fairly traditional
stated that when the second child comes, the secure oldest may try even harder to be the best, the star, the responsible, achievement-oriented exemplar, and the person in charge of the family ideals.
The less secure child may become hostile or take on infantile behaviors. Dealing well with the birth of the next child will help firstborns be more affiliative and confident
be those extroverted, creative, free-thinking spirits that NASA was trying to avoid. More often than not, second-born children look at what is left over in the way of roles and behavior
patterns that the firstborn child has shunned; picking another role is easier than competing with an older sibling who has a head start. Second-born children may get lower grades in school, even if they are brighter than their older sibling. Parents are often easier on second-born children and show less concern with rules. In fact, second-born children may be the family rebels—with or without a cause! In any case, a second-born is usually the opposite of the first child. Second-born children are easily discouraged by trying to compete with successful, older, and bigger first- borns. The more successful firstborns are, the more likely second-born children are to feel unsure of themselves and their abilities. They may even feel squeezed out, neglected, unloved, and abused when the third child arrives. The pressure to catch up and compete may lead second-born children to succeed in more creative and less conventional areas and to emphasize social over academic success. They tend to be caring, friendly, and expressive
Often referred to as Prince or Princess Charming, the youngest child could find a permanent lifestyle of being the baby in the family and being pampered by all. Youngest children often get a lot of service from all the other family members, and they may feel they should always be cosseted. They may become dependent or spoiled and lag in development. Youngest children readily develop real feelings of inferiority because they are smaller, less able to take care of themselves, and often not taken seriously. The really successful charmers may learn ways to manipulate the entire family. They decide either to challenge their elder siblings or to evade any direct struggles for superiority. Then again, the path is marked and the trail is broken for the youngest child. Family guidelines are clear, and the youngest children always retain their position. Perhaps the downside is the child's perception that a lot of catching up is necessary to ever find a place in the family. Nonetheless, these late born children often become adventurous, easygo- ing, empathic, social, and innovative, pursuing interests different from their siblings