MGT 2010 Clemson Test 3

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Terms in this set (123)
creativitythe act of developing new and imaginative ideas into realityinnovationis the activity of creating new ideas and converting them into useful applicationtwo myth about innovationinnovation happens in eureka moments innovation can be systematizedseed of innovationthe starting point for organizational innovationproduct innovationis a change in the appearance or the performance of a product or service or the creation of a new oneprocess innovationis a change in the way a product or service is conceived manufactures or disseminatedtransformational innovationsthe invention or breakthrough products or services that dont exsist yet and that are aimed at creating brand new markets and customersorganizational cultureas a set of shared takes for a granted implicit assumption that a group hold and then determines how it perceived doesn't just allow but celebrateshuman capitalcharacteristics that can help organizations innovate are creativity self-efficacy for innovation and quality of the relationship between managers and employeesrecognized problems and opportunities and devise solutionchange may be needed because you recognize a problem or recognize an opportunitygain allies by communicating your visioncreate a vision and future planovercome employee resistance and empower and reward them to achieve progressyou may have to overcome their resistance. then you need to remove obstacles that limit them in executing the vision finally you need to hand out periodic rewardexecute wellwhat finally will make or break an organization attempt at bringing new product and services is market is execution- the process as we stated of discussing how and what of using questioning analysis and following through to achieve the result promisedresistance to changeis an emotional behavior response to real or imagine threats to an established work routineresistance to change reasons1. individual re-disposition toward change 2. surprise and fear of the unknown 3. climate of mistrust 4. fear of failure 5. loss of star of job security 6. peer pressure 7. disruption of cultural tradition or group relationship 8. personality convicts 9. lack of tact or poor timing 10. non-reinforcing reward systempersonalityconsists of the stable psychological traits and behavioral attributes that give a person his or her identitythe big five personality dimensions1. extroversion 2. agreeableness 3. conscientiousness 4. emotional stability 5. openness to experienceproactive personalitysomeone who is more apt to take initiative and perseverance to influence the environmentcore self evaluationrepresents a broad personality trait compromising four positive individual traitsself efficacyis the belief in one's personal ability to do a task. learned helpless is associated w. the face of core self-valueself esteemto extent to which people like or dislike themselves their overall self-evaluationlearned helplessnessdebilitating lack of faith in your ability to control environmentlocus of controlindicated how much people believe they control their fate through their own effort.emotional stabilityis the extent to which people feel secure and unworried and how likely they are to experience negative emotions under pressureemotional intelligenceis the ability to monitor your and others feelings and to use this information to guide your thinking and actionsself awarenessthe most essential trait. this is the ability to read your own emotions and gauge your moods accurately so you know how you're affecting othersself managementability to control your emotions and act with honesty and integrityrelationship managementability to communicate clearly is arm conflicts and build strong personal bondssocial awarenessability to show others that you care and your understanding of how your emotions and actions affect othersfour steps of perceptual process1. selective attention 2. interpretation 3. storing in memory 4. retrieving from memory to make judgment and decisionsstereotypingis the tendency to attribute to an individual the characteristic one believes are typical of the group to which that individual belongs ethical and racialabsenteeismwhen a employee doesnt show up for workhalo effectin which we form an impression of an individual based on a single traitrecency effectis the tendency to remember recent information better than earlier informationcasual attributionis a activity of inferring causes for observed behaviorfundamental attribution biaspeople attribute another person behavior to his or her personal characteristic rather than to situational factorsself serving biaspeople tend to take more personal responsibility for success than for failureself fulfilling prophecydescribes the phenomenon in which peoples expectations of themselves or other lead them to behave in ways that make those expectations come trueemployee engagementdefined as an individual involvement satisfaction and enthusiasm for workjob satisfactionis the extent to which you feel positive or negative about various aspects of your workorganizational commitmentreflects the extent to which an employee identifies with organizations and is committed to its goalon boardingprograms help employees to integrate and transition to new jobs by making them familiar with corporate policies procedures culture and political by clarifying work roles expectationsorganization citizenship behaviorsare those employees behaviors that are not directly part of the employee job description that exceeds their work role requirementdiversityrepresents all the ways people are unlike and alike the differences and similarties in age gender race religion ethnicity sexual orientation capablites and socioeconomic backgroundinternal dimensions of diversityare those human difference that exert powerful sustained effects throughout every stage of our lives: gender, age, ethnicity, race, sexual orientationexternal dimensions of diversityincluded an element of choice consisting of the personal characteristics that people acquire, discard, or modify throughout their lives based on educational backgrounds, material status, parental status, religion, income, geographic location, work experiences, recreational habits, appearances, personal habitsorganization dimensionsmanagement status union affliction work location senior work content and division or departmentglass ceilingthe metaphor for an invisible barrier preventing women and minorities from being promoted to top executive jobsunderemployedworking at jobs require less education than they haveethnocentrismis the belief that one's native country culture language abilities or behaviors are superiors to those of another culturestressis the tension people feel when they are facing or enduring extraordinary demands constraints or opportunities and are uncertain about their ability to handle the effectivelytype A behaviormeaning they are involved in a chronic determined struggle to accomplish more in less timeRolesare set of behaviors that people expect of occupants of a position.helplessnesslack of faith in your ability to control your environmentrole ambiguitysource of stress that occurs when other expectations are unknowns or unclearrole overloadoccurs when others expectations exceeds ones abilityphysiological signs of stresssweaty palms restlessness backaches headaches upset stomach and nausea more serious signs are hypertension and heart attackpsychological signsbordom irritability nervousness anger anxiety hostility and depressionbehavior signssleeplessness changed in eating habits and increased smoking alcohol drug abuses. stress may be relevant through reduced performance and job satisfactionsburnoutis emotional mental and even physical exhaustionbufferadmin changes that managers can make to reduce the stressors that lead to employee burnoutsemployees assistance programinclude a host of the program aimed at helping an employee to cope with stress burnout substance abuse health-related problems family and marital issues and any general problem that negatively influence job performanceholisitc wellness programfocused on self-responsibility nutritional awareness relation techniques physical fitness and environmental awarenessrole conflictsources of stress that occur when one feels torn by the different expectations of important people in lifemotivationmay be defined as the psychological processes that arouds and direct goal-directed behaviorsextrinsic rewardsatisfaction in the payoff of others like moneyintrinsic rewardsatisfaction in performing that task itself.process perceptiveare concerned with the thought process by which people decide how to act. how employees choose behaviors to meet their needs, whereas need-based perspective simply try to understand employee needs process perspective go further and try to understand employees needs process perspective go further and try and understand why employees needsequity theoryfocused on employee perception as to how fairly they think they are being treated compared with others by j Stacy Adams. based on the idea that employees are motivated to see fairness in the rewards they expect for task performance employees are motivated to resolve feelings of injusticeinputspeople perceive they give to organizations are there time effort training experiences intelligence creativity seniority status and so onoutputsthe rewards that people revise from an organization pay benefits raises recognition bonus promotions status perquisites office with a view say or private parkingExpectancy Theorysuggests that people are motivated by two things 1. how much they want something and how likely they will get itinstrumentalityis the expectation that successful performance of the task will lead to outcome desiredvalenceis the value the importance a worker assigns to the possible outcomejob designis the division of organizations work among its employees and the applications of motivational theories to job to increase satisfaction and performance.traditional job designfitting people to jobsjob simplifactionsthe process of reducing the number of task a workerturnoverwhen employees leave their jobscore innovationthe optimizing of products or services for existing customersautonomydescribes the extent to which a job allows an employee to make choices about schedualing differnt tasks and deciding how to preformfeedbackthe extent to which workers receive clear direct information about how they will perform jobscontingency factorsthe degree to which a person wants personal and psychological developmentpay for performancebases pay on one's results different salaried employees might get differnt pay raises and other rewards such as promotions depedning on overall job performancepiece rateemployees are paid according to how much output they producesales commissionsales reps are paid a percentage of the earrings the company made from their salesbonusescash awards given to employees who achieve specific performance objectivesprofit sharingis the distribution to employee of a percentage of the company profitsgainsharingis the distribution of saving of gains to groups of employee who reduce costs and increased measurable productivitypay for knowledgetie employees pay to number of job related skills or academic degrees they earnflexible workplacewhole class of nonmonetary incentive to attract retain and motive employees including part tie work flextime compared workweek job sharing and tele community as described in practical action boxgroupis defined as two or more freely interacting individuals who share norms share goals and have a common identityteamis defined as a small group of people with complementary skills who are commmitted to a common purpose performance goals and approach for which they hold themselves mutually accountableformal groupis a group assigned by organziations or its mangers to accomplish specific goals may be division department or work group or a committeinformal groupcreated for friendship is a group formed by people whose overriding purpose is getting together for friendship for a common interest. may be simply collevting of friends who hang out with one another such as service club alumin grouptop mangement teammemebers consit of ceo presidents and top department heads and work to help the organization achieve its mission and goalsvirtual teamsmemebers interact by computer network to collaborate on projectsadvice teamare created to broaden the information base for managerial decisionsaction teamrequires specialized traning with high degreee of coordinationproject teamcreative problem solvingproduction teamperform day to day operationscross-functional teamspecialists pursuing a common objectivecohesivenesstendency of a group or team to stick togethersmall teambetter interaction, less innovation, unfair work distribution, better morale, fewer resourceslarge teammore resources, division of labor, less interaction, lower morale, social loafingsocial loafingextert less effort when working in grouptask rolebehavior that concentrates on getting team's task donemaintence rolesbehavior fosters constructive relationships among team membersgroup think exampleabilene paradoxpersonality conflictPersonality clashes, scarce resources, time pressure, communication failureintergroup conflictInconsistent goals or reward systems, ambiguous jurisdictions, status differencescritical needs of job characteristicsmeaningfulness, responsibility, knowledgejob characteristics fuelmotivation, performance, statifaction, low turnovermodern job designfitting jobs to people