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College American History ch. 7-8
Terms in this set (44)
New York City
On March 4, 1798, the new Congress of the United States held its first meeting here. Only eight senators and thirteen representatives attended. It would be another month before both chambers could gather a quorum. Only then could the presiding officer of the senate certify the forgone conclusion that George Washington, with 69 votes, was the unanimous choice of the Electoral College for president. John Adams, with 34 votes, the second-highest number, became vice president.
He was a plantation owner, author, the drafter of the Declaration of Independence, ambassador to France, leader of the Republican party, secretary of state, the second vice president of the United States, and the third president of the United States. As president, he purchased the Louisiana Territory from France, withheld appointments made by President Adams leading to Marbury v. Madison, outlawed foreign slave trade, and was committed to a "wise and frugal" government.
The powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution, nor prohibited by it to the States, are reserved to the states respectively, or to the people. [The first ten amendments went into effect December 15, 1791.]
First head of the department of the treasury, under George Washington. He was the leader of the "Federalists". He founded American capitalism through a federal budget, funded debt, a federal tax system, national bank, a customs service, and a coast guard. He died in a dual against Aaron Burr.
Proposed by Alexander Hamilton for 3 primary purposes: to serve as a secure repository for government funds and facilitate transfers to other nations; to provide loans to the government and other banks to aid in economic growth; to manage money supply by regulating the money-issuing activities of state chartered banks. Chartered by Congress. Thomas Jefferson did away with the bank during his term as President believing it to be unconstitutional. However, before his term was out he changed his mind, seeing the need for the bank and reopened it.
First used during the early nineteenth century to describe supporters of a strict interpretation of the constitution, which they believed would safeguard individual freedoms and state's rights from the threats posed by a strong central government. The idealist republican vision of sustaining and agrarian-oriented union was developed largely by Thomas Jefferson.
(1789-1799) A period of radical social and political upheaval in French and European history. The absolute monarchy that had ruled France for centuries collapsed in three years. Old ideas about hierarchy and tradition succumbed to new Enlightenment principles of citizenship and inalienable rights.
aka citizen Genet. As the ambassador to the US from the New French Republic, he engaged American privateers to attack British ships and conspired with frontiersmen and land speculators to organize and attack on Spanish Florida and Louisiana. His actions and the French radicals excessive actions against their enemies in the new French republic caused the French Revolution to lose supports among Americans.
Treaty of Greenville
After their defeat at the Battle of the Fallen Timbers in 1794, 12 Native American tribes signed the Treaty of Greenville, which cleared the Ohio territory of tribes and opened it up to U.S. settlement
Part of the excise taxes, the whiskey tax added a tax on whiskey at seven cents a gallon This helped pay of some of the debt.Violent protests by Western Pennsylvania farmers against the federal excise tax on corn whiskey 1794.
Treaty with Spain negotiated by Thomas Pinckney in 1795; established US boundaries at the MS River and the 31st parallel and allowed open transportation on the MS.
Washington's Farewell Address
Dated September 17, 1796, Washington's speech called for unity among the people in backing their new government. He regretted the rising spirit of partisanship and sectionalism; he feared the emergence of regional political parties promoting local interests. In foreign relations, Washington said, the US should avoid getting involved in quarrels of warring nations, and most importantly "our true policy to steer clear of permanent alliances with any portion of a foreign world." A key word here is permanent, meaning don't enter an alliance that you cannot get out of if necessary.
Election of 1800
Also known as the Revolution of 1800, on March 4, 1801, Thomas Jefferson became the first president to be inaugurated in the new national capital, Washington D.C. The reason it was called a revolution was because they went from Federalist to Republican with a tie that had to be broken.
After the Revolutionary War, he served as the minister to Britain as well as the VP and the second President of the US. As president, he passed the alien and sedition acts and endured a stormy relationship with France, which included the XYZ affair.
During his long tenure as the 4th Chief Justice of the Supreme Court, (1801-1835), he established the foundations for American Jurisprudence, the authority of the Supreme Court and the constitutional supremacy of the national government over states.
First Chief Justice of the Supreme Court, 1789-1795. After serving in the first and second continental Congress, he became American Ambassador in Spain. He assisted in negotiating the Treaty of Paris in 1783. Coauthored the "Federalist" and became a major champion for the constitution. Washington sent him to London to settle issues between Britain and the US.He was instrumental in gaining ground with the British in many areas. The treaty that was reached with Britain angered Thomas Jefferson and others who favored France during the war time.
Even though he was Thomas Jefferson's VP, he lost favor with Jefferson's supporters who were Republicans. He sought to work with the Federalist and run as their candidate as the governor of NY. Alexander Hamilton opposed Burr's candidacy and his stinging remarks on the subject led to Burr challenging him to a duel in which Hamilton was killed. In 1807 Jefferson ordered his arrest for treason. He tried to flee to Florida but was caught and brought back for trial before Chief Justice John Marshall. He was found not guilty because the Constitution states that treason consists of "levying war against the US or adhering to their enemies" and requires "2 witnesses to the same overt act" for conviction and the prosecution failed to produce those witnesses.That put and end to his political career.
He participated in the Constitutional Convention during which he proposed the Virginia Plan. He believed in a strong Federal Government and was a leader of the Federalists and a contributor to the Federalists Column. However, he also presented to Congress the Bill of Rights and drafted the Virginia Resolutions. As the Secretary of State, he withheld a commission for William Marbury which led to the landmark Marbury vs Madison decision.During his presidency, he declared war on Britain in response to American shipping rights which started the war of 1812.
First US Supreme Court decision to declare a federal law-the judiciary acts of 1801-unconstitutional; President John Adam's "midnight appointment" of federalist judges prompted the suit.
(1769-1821) Emperor of France; he seized power in a coup d'état in 1799 and he gained a large empire in Europe. He placed his relatives into positions of power throughout Europe, he was defeated at the Battle of Waterloo, and sent to exile on the island of Elba.
President Thomas Jefferson's 1803 purchase from France of the important port of New Orleans and 828,000 square miles west of the MS River to the Rocky Mountains; It more than doubled the territory of the US at a cost of only $15 million.
1804-1806 - Meriwether Lewis and William Clark were commissioned by Jefferson to map and explore the Louisiana Purchase region. Beginning at St. Louis, Missouri, the expedition travelled up the Missouri River to the Great Divide, and then down the Columbia River to the Pacific Ocean. It produced extensive maps of the area and recorded many scientific discoveries, greatly facilitating later settlement of the region and travel to the Pacific coast.
He was a leader of the Shawnee tribe who tried to unite all Indians into a confederation that could defend their hunting grounds. He believed that no land cessions could be made without the consent of all the Indian tribes since they held the land in common. His beliefs and leadership made him seem dangerous to the American government and they waged war on him and his tribe. He was killed at the Battle of Thames.
Battle fought against the Shawnee by William Henry Harrison. British gun powder proved that they were assisting the Shawnee and gave congress reason to declare war.
In 1811, congressional members from the southern and western districts who clamored for a war to seize Canada and Florida.
Over 1000 Red Sticks fought 2000 troops (led by Jackson and assisted by White Sticks); Creeks surrendered south GA land.
Andrew Jackson gains fame; federalist party comes to an end; American victory even if it occurred after the war ended.
War of 1812
A war between the U.S. and Great Britain caused by American outrage over the impressment of American sailors by the British, the British seizure of American ships, and British aid to the Indians attacking the Americans on the western frontier. Also, a war against Britain gave the U.S. an excuse to seize the British northwest posts and to annex Florida from Britain's ally Spain, and possibly even to seize Canada from Britain. The War Hawks (young westerners led by Henry Clay and John C. Calhoun) argued for war in Congress. The war involved several sea battles and frontier skirmishes. U.S. troops led by Andrew Jackson seized Florida and at one point the British managed to invade and burn Washington, D.C. The Treaty of Ghent (December 1814) restored the status quo and required the U.S. to give back Florida. Two weeks later, Andrew Jackson's troops defeated the British at the Battle of New Orleans, not knowing that a peace treaty had already been signed. The war strengthened American nationalism and encouraged the growth of industry.
Treaty of Ghent
The signing of this treaty in 1814 ended the war of 1812 without solving any of the disputes between Britain and the US.
"American System" of Protective tariffs (of 1816) for eastern manufacturing, federally funded canals and highways for the west, and a strong banking system with good credit to support it all. However federal highways and canals were vetoed by Madison and states were forced to build their own. Helped to Form both of the compromises as well. Opposed manifest destiny.
Francis Scott Key
During the War of 1812, he watched British forces bombard Fort McHenry, but failed to take it. Seeing the American flag still flying over the fort at dawn inspired him to write "The Star Spangled Banner," which became the American National Anthem.
Robert R. Livingston
The U.S. minister to France in 1801. He assisted Jefferson in the Louisiana Purchase.
Oliver H. Perry
American ship captain who defeated a British naval squadron on Lake Eerie during the war of 1812; he is famous for saying: "We have met the enemy and they are ours"; he also made his own ships.
He created Pickney's Treaty in October 1795. Under the treaty, Spain agreed to recognize the U.S. southern boundary as the 31st parallel. Washington asked U.S. negotiator Thomas Pinckney to meet with Spanish officials to discuss the problem. He asked the Spaniards to reopen New Orleans to U.S. trade. Pinckney also asked for the right of deposit in New Orleans.
In 1789, the electoral college chose him to be the nation's first president. He assembled a cabinet of brilliant minds, which included Thomas Jefferson, James Madison, and Alexander Hamilton. Together, they would lay the foundations of American government and capitalism. He faced the nation's first foreign and domestic crises. In 1793, the British and French were at war. He chose to keep America neutral in the conflict even though France and the US had signed a treaty of alliance. A year later, the whiskey rebellion erupted in Pennsylvania, and on August 7th, 1794, he issued a proclamation ordering the rebels to go home and called in militia men to keep order. Getting no response from the "whiskey boys" he ordered the army to suppress the rebellion. Under the command of General Henry Lee, 13,000 soldiers marched out from Harrisburg across the Alleghenies. George Washington himself accompanied the troops during the first few days, the only American president to lead troops in the field while in office.
He was named by President Washington to head a military expedition into the Northwest Territory. In the fall of 1793, he marched into Indian county with over 2600 men, built Fort Greenville and went on the offensive in 1794. In August, 2000 Indian warriors along with Canadian militia, engaged his troops in the Battle of Fallen Timbers, south of Detroit. The Americans repulsed them and destroyed their fields and villages. The Indians were frustrated by their inability to stop the white settlers finally agreed to the Treaty of Greenville signed in 1795.
Describe the structure of government as it was established under the Constitution.
In May 1789, Congressman James Madison presented a set of constitutional amendments, now known as the Bill of Rights. This idea was formed, because four major states requested it. In September 1789, Congress approved the amendments. By the end of 1791, the necessary three fourths of the states had approved ten out of the twelve proposed amendments.
Who was the leading force in the House of Representatives pushing for a bill of rights? Describe how this idea was formed. What were the outcomes of this initiative?
Compare the arguments of Jefferson and Hamilton on the constitutionality of the Bank of the United States.
The Whiskey Rebellion occurred, because of the excise tax on corn whiskey. The Washington Administration responded the way they did because the rebels were starting to get violently out of hand. Washington took it upon himself to deliver the message that they better stop or it was going to get ugly (I feel sure). The reason that Washington did this was because the rebels were not listening to the militiamen alone. They needed to be fear stricken to listen and behave, like a little child and his or her parents.
What were the causes of the Whiskey rebellion? Why did the Washington administration respond to the Whiskey rebellion in the manner it did?
Examine Tecumseh's attempt to unify Western Indians against the Americans. Was his defeat an important moment in Indian-Anglo relations?
Thomas Jefferson's election in 1800 is sometimes referred to as the "Revolution of 1800" because it was the first time their had been a change of political party in the presidential office.
Assess the degree to which Jefferson's election as president can accurately be called the "Revolution of 1800."
The issue that caused the Marbury v. Madison case of 1803 was John Adams appointment of the "Midnight Judges," one of which was William Marbury. Marbury's letter of commission was not delivered until after James Madison took office as the Secretary of State, so Jefferson told Madison to withhold it. Marbury then sued for a court order directing Madison to deliver his commission. The Supreme Court ruled that they had no jurisdiction over the case, according to Section 13 of the Judiciary Act of 1789. The Constitution specified that the Court should have original jurisdiction in cases involving foreign ambassadors or states.
Discuss the issues that led to the Marbury v. Madison case of 1803. What were the results of the decision, and what impact did it have on the Supreme Court and the country?
Describe the Lewis and Clark expedition. What impact did it have on developing the United States west of the Mississippi River?