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Civilizations Early History Unit
Terms in this set (84)
the way of life a people follows.
a massive stepped tower on which was built a temple dedicated to the chief god or goddess of a Sumerian City.
18th century b.c. or earlier, king of Babylonia., Amorite ruler of Babylon (r. 1792-1750 B.C.E.). He conquered many city-states in southern and northern Mesopotamia and is best known for a code of laws, inscribed on a black stone pillar, illustrating the principles to be used in legal cases. (p. 34)
wedge-shaped, a system of writing developed by the Sumerians using reed stylus to create wedge-shaped impressions on a clay tablet.
an administrative organization that relies on non elective officials and regular procedures.
1495-75 b.c, queen of Egypt., 1480 BC Queen Hatshepsut came to power during the New Kingdom, forst ruling with her husband and then on behalf of her stepson, Thutmose III. Had herself crowned pharaoh. Wore false beard, usually worn by kings. BUilt great fueral temple in Valley of the Kings.
1292-1225 b.c, king of ancient Egypt., A long-lived ruler of New Kingdom Egypt (r. 1290-1224 BCE). He reached an accomodation with the Hittites of Anatolia after a standoff in battle at Kadesh in Syria. He built on a grand scale throughout Egypt.
of or pertaining to ancient and recent Persia (now Iran), its people, or their language.
a native or inhabitant of ancient Mycenae,
the early Greek city-state, consisting of a city or town and its surrounding countryside,
a wall of shields created by foot soldiers marching shoulder to shoulder in a rectangular formation.
Code of Lycuragus
Spartan lawgiver. He is traditionally regarded as the founder of the Spartan constitution, military institutions, and educational system
a pass in E Greece, between the cliffs of Mt. Oeta and the Gulf of Lamia: Persian defeat of the Spartans 480 b.c.
(470-399 BC) An Athenian philosopher who thought that human beings could lead honest lives and that honor was far more important than wealth, fame, or other superficial attributes.
an island off the SE coast of Greece, W of Athens, in the Gulf of Aegina: Greeks defeated Persians in a naval battle 480 b.c. 39 sq. mi. (101 sq. km).
school of thought developed by the philosopher Epicurus in Hellenistic Athens; it held that happiness is the chief goal in life, and the means to achieve happiness was the pursuit of pleasure.
wealthy, powerful landowners, they formed the ruling class in the Roman Republic.
Class of people without access to producing property; usually manufacturing workers, paid laborers in agriculture, or urban poor
the political alliance of Julius Caesar, Marcus Crassus, and Pompey Magnus.
( Lucius Domitius Ahenobarbus ) ( "Nero Claudius Caesar Drusus Germanicus" ) a.d. 37-68, emperor of Rome 54-68, known for his cruelty and depravity.
A Roman gladiator who led the most serious slave revolt in Roman history from 73 to 71 B.C.E.).
( Gaius Aurelius Valerius Diocletianus ) a.d. 245-316, Illyrian soldier: emperor of Rome 284-305.
Law of Nations
an extended social group having a distinctive cultural and economic organization
the belief in government by divine authority
A society that places males at the highest importance
flourished c3200 b.c, traditionally the unifier and 1st king of Egypt: founder of the 1st dynasty.
a nomadic people who conquered and ruled ancient Egypt between the 13th and 18th dynasties, c1700-1580 b.c.: believed to have been a Semitic people that originally migrated into Egypt from Asia.
early ruler of Egypt who rejected the old gods and replaced them with sun worship (died in 1358 BC)
an inhabitant of ancient Assyria
of or pertaining to Zoroaster or the religion he founded
the extinct language of an ancient Semitic people who dominated trade in the ancient world
the marketplace in ancient Greece
the most powerful members of a society
one of a body of magistrates in various ancient Dorian states, especially at Sparta, where a body of five was elected annually by the people.
Athenian statesman whose leadership contributed to Athen's political and cultural supremacy in Greece
(430-347 BC) Was a disciple of Socrates whose cornerstone of thought was his theory of Forms, in which there was another world of perfection.
a defeat of the Persian army by the Greeks in 479 BC
an indifference to pleasure or pain
one of the common people
Tiberius & Gaius
tribunes who attempted to introduce land and citizenship reform under the late Roman republic; both were killed by order of the Senate.
a group of three men responsible for public administration or civil authority(Included Antony, Octavian, and Lepidus).
Roman emperor and adoptive son of Nerva
A family mostly governed by the male
a walled city in northeastern Algeria east of Algiers
A group of ancient city-states in southern Mesopotamia; the earliest civilization in Mesopotamia.
A conquerer who defeated the city-states of Sumer. His conquests helped to spread the Sumerian culture even farther (beyond the Tigris-Euphrates Valley). He created the world's first empire, lasting for about another 200 years before it declined due to internal fighting, invasions, and famine.
Belief in many gods
A line of rulers who belong to the same family
Egyptians built these structures to protect the bodies of dead pharaohs. These structures also contained items the pharaohs might need in the afterlife.
Pharaoh of Egypt around 1358 BC, youngest pharoh, restored old gods, died at an early age
of or relating to ancient Chaldea or its people or language or culture
(Greek mythology) a mythical monster with the head of a bull and the body of a man
Strive for excellence
heavily armed Greek infantrymen who marched and fought in close ranks; most of the recruits were middle-class citizens
Solon & Cleisthenes
They were famous because they helped promote democracy in the city-state of athens
a battle in 490 BC in which the Athenians and their allies defeated the Persians
Aeschylus & Sophocles
dramatists that dealt solemnly with questions about religions, politics, ethics, and morality
A Greek Philosopher, taught Alexander the Great, started a famous school, studied with Plato
City in Egypt founded by Alexander the Great, center of commerce and Hellenistic civilization
a political system in which the supreme power lies in a body of citizens who can elect people to represent them, its founders were Marius and Sulla
Roman Emperor who succeeded Tiberius and whose uncontrolled passions resulted in manifest insanity
Battle of Actium
battle between Marcus Antony and Octavian for control of the empire. Octavian won in 31 B.C.
69-30 B.C. Ruler of Egyptian government in Alexandria who backed Caesar in the civil war he waged from 49 to 45 B.C.
Battle of Milvian Bridge
Battle between Roman emperors Constantine and Maxentius in 312; Constantine had visions that said by the sign we will conqure so he drew the cross on all the shields and won
Advanced technology, A system of writing, Specialized workers, Rise of Cities, Complex Institutions
Government, Religion, Economics, Education, Family
The Tigris and ___ Rivers formed the Fertile Crescent
The first civilizations, in the Fertile Crescent, was in ___
The ___ allowed Egyptian civilization to prosper, flowed North!
____ included the principles of government leading society, just punishment, and retaliation against enemies
In Egypt the ___ was considered an absolute ruler and god, likewise for Mesopotamia without the rank of a god
Known as a maat in Mesopotamia and a ___ in Egypt, it held a person's spirit
The bodies of water for ___ included the Mediterranean, Ionian, Aegean, and Black Seas
The epics by ___ were the Illiad and The Odyssey
The ___ in Athens housed the statue of Athena, considered Greece's greatest building achievement
Three reasons for Greek ___ were tribute to gods, education, and civic pride
Alexander the Great left a legacy of ___ in Greece and its conquered territories
The Etruscans, Latins, and Greeks contributed in the settling ancient ___
___ ___'s four reforms were land and jobs to proletarians, adoption of Julian calendar, increased citizenship in Rome, increased citizenship in Senate
Some of ___'s 8 reforms included elimination of tariffs, highway system, Proletarian Guard, cities that imitated Rome, line of succession
The official year of the fall of Rome was ___
Military, economic, and political factors led to the fall of the ___ empire
Athens & Sparta
Delian League (___) vs. Peloponnesian League (___), political groups in ancient Greece, and protected the empire
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
Civilizations Europe Unit
Civilizations Asia Unit
Civilizations Religion Unit
Civilizations Revolution Unit
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