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44 terms

Africa

STUDY
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Savanna
-Tropical, wet, and dry
-warm year-round
-rainfall is unpredictable
-has drought
-desertification
-50% of Africa
drought
prolonged period of time without water
cataracts
waterfall; made trade difficult
desertification
the turning of land to desert by overgrazing and drought
deforestation
cutting down of the rain forest in order to farm
Griot
African storyteller
Animism
worship of spirits in nature
Bantus
early Africans who moved south, and spreading culture
-cattle was very important; seen as wealth
-spread language
Egyptians
-lived near the Nile
-Polytheistic
-had hieroglyphics and pyramids
Nubians (1,000 B.C.-150 A.D.)
-present day Sudan
-capital was at Meroë, at which they traded ivory, gold, and animal skins with Mediterranean and the Middle East
-adapted Egyptian ideas
-had a writing system
-taken over by Axum in 350 A.D.
Axum (900 B.C.-600 A.D.)
-modern day Ethiopia
-the early people were farmers and traders who traded with the people along the Red Sea
-Geaz
-practiced Judaism which lead to Christianity
-traded gold, and ivory for medal and cloth
-terrace farmed
-built stone churches in the highlands
Geaz
written language in Axum
Berbers
-early farmers and traders
-used horses and and revolutionized trade with the camel
-helped connect trade between North and West Africa
-transaharan trade route
transaharan trade route
route in which salt and iron were traded for gold
Carthiginians (Phoenicians)(1000 B.C.)
-settled in Carthage
-controlled trade in the Mediterranean
-ruled by an Oligarchy
-Plytheistic: sacrificed male children to Baal
-conquered by Romans
Oligarchy
government rule by a select few
Romans
brought:
-their military
-taxes
-architecture (coliseums)
-Christianity
Ghana (800-1100 A.D.)
-present day Mali
-controlled the gold and salt ttrade
-collected taxes and tolls
-women had high status
-Islam spread to Ghana
Mali (1250-1400 A.D.)
-present day Burkina Faso and Senegal
-took over gold and salt trade
-major trading center was Timbuktu (libraries, schools, mosques)
-Mansa Musa
Mansa Musa
-expanded territory
-converted to Islam and goes on a hajj
-brought Muslim scholars back West Africa, which caused more people to become interested in West Africa
Songhai (1450-1586 A.D.)
-present day Mali and Niger
-largest West African Kingdom
-ruled by a military dictator called an askia
-major city was Gao
-continued the gold and salt trade from Timbuktu
-most people remained polytheistic, but some converted to Islam
Hausa
-had many female rulers
-weaving was their major industry
Benin
-modern day Guinea
-had an Oba
-had bronze and brass art
-Europeans will arrive and set up the slave trade
oba
king/religious leader
Kilwa
Port city along the Southeast coast
Swahili
an East-African language composed of Bantu and Arabic
Great Zimbabwe
civilization in Southeast Africa
-little known about them
-thought to decline due to over farming and warfare
Khosian
-settled in the Kalahari Desert
-language has clicking sounds
Kinship
large groups of family members who live and work together
Patrilineal
family line through the father
Matrilineal
family line through the mother
Consensus
tribes work together to come to an agrement
Ibn Battuta
African traveler who wrote about his journeys through Africa
characteristics of African religion
-worship spirits and ancestors
-song and dance used to worship
Muslims
brought:
-Islam
-Arabic
-architecture
-art
-medecin
-math
Desert
-40% of Africa
-Sahara
-Kalahari
-Namib
Sahara
-larger than the U.S.
-130°F
Kalahari
-located in Southern Africa
-some plant life
Namib
one of the driest places on earth
Tropical
-8% of Africa
-hot and humid
-rainforest
-disease (Malaria)
-leaching
-deforestation
leaching
when nutrients are drained out of the soil
Temperate
-2% of Africa
-hot summers, cool winters
-good for growing and grazing
Agriculture
-bananas
-wheat
-coffee
African societies
are organized in kinships