Political party that ruled West Germany for the first 20 years (1949-69) led by Konrad Adenhaur...credited for "economic miracle"
What happened to prominent Nazi's after WWII in Germany?
They were tried by the Allies at Nuremburg and then later by German courts
Charles de Gaulle
Leader of Free French...General that resigned in 1946 after re-establishing the free, democratic Fourth Republic. Came back to lead the Fifth Republic in 1959.
Labor Party under him moved toward establishment of a "Welfare State"; formed government of England after Churchill; nationalized some industries.
made after a new French consitution gave more power to the president. Charles De Gaulle was the first president of the Fifth French Republic. De Gaulle soon started a long retreat from Algeria
European Coal and Steel Community
international organization to control and integrate all European coal and steel production. Consisted of West Germany, Italy, Belgium, Netherlands, Luxembourg, and France. Number 1 goal to be so close together economically that war against them impossible. "The six".
European Economic Community
(Common Market) Organization, begun on January 1, 1958, including France, German Federal Republic, Italy, and the Benelux nations (Belgium, Netherlands, and Luxembourg). By 1966 the Common Market would eliminate all customs barriers between the countries, would set up a common tariff policy on imports, and would gradually remove all restrictions on the movement of workers and capital.
a government that undertakes responsibility for the welfare of its citizens through programs in public health and public housing and pensions and unemployment compensation etc.
Simone de Beauvoir
French author of The Second Sex. She argued for women's rights and was also a prominent figure in the existentialist movement. She died in 1986.
The Second Sex
written by Simone de Beauvior, teacher, novelist, and writer; challenged marrige, the basic unit of modern society; theorized that marriage held women back because of male-dominated societies; recognized females as the "Other" and as second-class citizens
1921-2006. American feminist, activist and writer. Best known for starting the "Second Wave" of feminism through the writing of her book "The Feminine Mystique". Founded NOW (National Organization for Women)
Paris Student Revolts, 1968
May 1968 was, in its origins, a revolt against the stifling papa-knows-best conservatism, and dullness, of General Charles de Gaulle's economically booming 1960s France. It was, at one level, a catch-up, fast-forward revolution for the right to wear long hair and purple trousers. It began in March, at the new Nanterre University west of Paris, as a demand for the rights of boy and girl students in their late teens and twenties to sleep together.
What was generally happening politically and economically in each of the following countries?
West Germany: economic growth, eager to join other European countries in an economic union (Adenauer)
Great Britain: creation of welfare state (Attlee)
France: Fifth Republic (De Gaulle)
Italy: economic miracle...monarchy abolished
Canada: economic growth tied to the United States...liberal welfare state established
United States: economic boom, "Red Scare" fear of communism led by Joseph McCarthy, Civil Rights movement in the 1960s, Vietnam War protests 1960s
Basic structural changes in Europe
1. more people joined the middle class
2. more people moved from rural to urban areas
3. consumer society developed (more people bought cars for instance)
4. mass leisure and mass tourism developed because people made more money and worked fewer hours
Examples of the post-war expansion of the welfare state:
1. extension of old age pensions, unemployment insurance, healthcare, etc.
2. family allowances guaranteeing money for people with children
3. free tuition at universities
How did the welfare state initially treat women?
Britain and France tended to encourage women to stay home
France generally treated women as equals but offered financial incentives for women to have children
big right after WWII (baby boom) then slowed down primarily due to better birth control (the pill)
Name of the book by Betty Friedan that discussed the frustration of many women in the 1950's and 1960's who felt they were restricted to their roles of mother and homemaker.
The Permissive Society (examples)
1. increased divorce rates
2. sexual freedom
3. experimentation with drugs (esp. marijuana and LSD)
Reasons for student radicalism and revolts:
1. reform the universities
2. protests of the Vietnam War
3. attack on materialism and other aspects of Western Culture
Martin Luther King Jr
1. led Civil Rights movement in 1950s and 1960s
2. head of SCLC (Southern Christian Leadership Conf)
3. assassinated 1968