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Chest Radiography: Specific Conditions and Lab #4
Terms in this set (180)
____________________________ is an infectious disease of the lung caused by bacteria, mycoplasma, viruses, and other microorganisms?
Regarding pneumonia, the determination of the causative organism is done by ____________________________?
What are the clinical signs and symptoms of pneumonia?
Rales correlate with radiographic findings in the vast majority of pneumonia cases (TRUE/FALSE)?
You can differentiate the type of pneumonia and specific causative organisms based on radiological patterns alone (TRUE/FALSE)?
What is the role of chest radiography in managing pneumonia?
Confirm clinical suspicion of pneumonia
Evaluate for predisposing causes (Tumor, COPD)
Follow course of pneumonia
The type and amount of the inflammatory ___________________ in the air spaces and the _______________________________ infiltration determine the criteria for classification of pneumonia?
What is the most common type of radiological pattern associated with pneumonia?
What is the most common cause of an alveolar radiographic pattern?
What is the most common cause of alveolar pneumonia?
How is pneumonia transmitted?
Bacteria is inhaled through the trachea and goes to the periphery of the lower lung field
The rossette sign, air bronchogram sign, and acinar shadow are all associated with a(n) __________________________ radiographic pattern?
What is the most common etiologic agent of a typical community-acquired pneumonia?
An alveolar pattern will not usually cross fissures (TRUE/FALSE)?
An alveolar pattern will cause the collapse of the affected lung (TRUE/FALSE)?
What is the differential diagnosis list for a consolidated pattern on a radiograph?
Protein (Alveolar proteinosis)
What is the most common cause of bronchopneumonia?
Bronchopneumonia is typically seen as a _____________________ infection, meaning that it usually originates in hospitals?
Bronchopneumonia spreads via the pores of __________________ that connect alveoli to alveoli?
The canals of ___________________ are bronchioalveolar connections?
_____________________________ causes a multifocal and patchy appearance in the lung on a chest radiograph?
Bronchopneumonia begins in the walls of the ______________________ bronchus?
An air bronchogram sign is NOT typically seen in a case of bronchopneumonia (TRUE/FALSE)?
Multiple ill-defined confluent nodular opacities (Acinar units) in a consolidative pattern at the base of the left lung describes what type of pneumonia?
Bronchopneumonia usually occurs in the (Base/Apex) of the lungs?
_____________________________ pneumonia is infiltration of the wall of the bronchus and the interlobular septa (NOT THE AIR SPACE)?
What is the most common etiological agent of interstitial pneumonia?
Interstitial or mycoplasma pneumonia is also called _________________________ pneumonia?
What form of pneumonia is found in the central portion of the lung near the hilum?
What form of pneumonia presents with linear and reticular opacities near the hilum of the lung?
Interstitial pneumonia commonly presents with pleural fluid (TRUE/FALSE)?
Fungal pneumonia is most common in what population?
What are the five granulomatous diseases?
What granulomatous disease is also called Ohio Valley Fever?
What granulomatous disease is also called San Joaquin Valley Fever?
Granulomatous diseases present with a _______________________?
How does a granuloma present on a radiograph?
Small, round soft tissue density <1 cm in diameter
Radiographically, the granulomatous infections all look very similar and may be indistinguishable from each other (TRUE/FALSE)?
What is the old name for tuberculosis?
What is the etiologic agent of tuberculosis?
How is tuberculosis transmitted?
Airborne inhalation typically to the middle and lower lobes
How can primary TB spread in the lungs?
Direct (Bronchogenic) spread to lymph
What is the most common route of spread of primary TB in the body?
What stage of TB is most likely to present in a chiropractic office>
What form of TB is found in patients that were never sensitized to TB?
What form of TB is found in patients that have been previously exposed to TB?
Primary tuberculosis is typically asymptomatic (TRUE/FALSE)?
Tuberculous pneumonia is easy to distinguish from bacterial pneumonia on a radiograph (TRUE/FALSE)?
An alveolar pattern in primary TB evolves into an inflammatory focus called a _________________ focus?
A Ghon focus is an area of central ______________________ necrosis?
A patient with primary TB has a chest radiograph taken. A well circumscribed, small pulmonary nodule with ill-defined borders is seen. What is this most likely describing?
A ghon focus is SPECIFIC to _____________________________?
In latent TB, granulomas in the lymph nodes calcify in a ________________________ pattern?
A _____________________ complex is the presence of a calcified nodule in the periphery and calcification within the lymph nodes of the hila?
A _________________ complex is not pathognomonic for TB, but is fairly specific?
A __________________ complex is when a hilar lymph node calcification and a calcified pulmonary nodule exist together?
In what stage of TB is a patient considered non-infectious?
What test is typically followed by CXR to test for tuberculosis?
Skin test/Mantoux/PPD/Tuberculin sensitivity test
There are generally no complications associated with TB unless the patient is immunocompromised (TRUE/FALSE)?
A patient with post-primary (Secondary) TB is often __________________________?
What stage of tuberculosis is often severe and potentially fatal?
Post-Primary TB prefers
What is a good way to determine granulomatous disease from neoplasia?
Calcification; A calcified lesion usually is a less aggressive lesion such as TB while a neoplasia is usually non-calcified
What stage of tuberculosis requires an apical lordotic view in many cases?
What stage of tuberculosis prefers the right upper lungs?
What stage of tuberculosis prefers Boyden #1 and #3?
What stage of tuberculosis often results in cavitation?
What is a good list of etiologic agents for a cavitated lesion?
Mycobacterium Tuberculosis (Post-Primary)
TB may result in organ manifestations via hematogenous spread (TRUE/FALSE)?
Putty kidney is associated which hematogenous spread of what granulomatous disease?
What type of TB presents with numerous small nodules 1-3 mm in diameter throughout the ENTIRE LUNG and is rapidly fatal?
What is the most common modern therapy for TB?
____________________ involves removal of TB diseased lung lobes and packing with ping pong balls to prevent deformity?
TB is one of the top ten causes of mortality worldwide (TRUE/FALSE)?
Where is TB most prevalent worldwide?
A ghon focus is NOT a radiographic term, it is a pathologic term (TRUE/FALSE)?
What is the main reason for the rise of drug-resistant forms of TB?
Patient non-compliance to treatment
A _________________ pattern is a radiographic pattern indicative of lymph node calcification?
What granulomatous diseases are due to fungal infections?
What is the most common fungal infection in the US?
What is the etiologic agent of histoplasmosis?
Histoplasmosis usually has a benign course (TRUE/FALSE)?
What fungal infection is endemic to the Mississippi and Ohio River valleys?
The _________________ form of histoplasmosis is most common?
__________________________________ is found in bird feces and lives in the soil?
The snowflake sign is associated with which pathology?
Histoplasmosis is usually asymptomatic with a two week incubation period (TRUE/FALSE)?
Histoplasmosis is radiographically identical to TB (TRUE/FALSE)?
The (Primary/Post-Primary) form of histoplasmosis is much more aggressive?
What are the two main etiologic agents of coccidioidomycosis?
What granulomatous fungal disease is endemic to the Southwest US?
Coccidioidomycosis usually takes an asymptomatic course (TRUE/FALSE)?
What triad of symptoms is associated with desert rheumatism?
What granulomatous fungal infection can result in desert rheumatism?
What is the etiologic agent of blastomycosis?
What fungal granulomatous disease is endemic to the eastern US and southern Canada?
What is the etiologic agent of South American Blastomycosis?
What are the most common types of opportunistic fungal infections?
Aspergillosis and Candidiasis
Why have opportunistic fungal infections become more frequent?
Antibiotic and cancer chemotherapy
During what age range does sarcoidosis usually arise? What sex and ethnicity?
20-40s Black females
What granulomatous disease is typically a diagnosis of exclusion?
What granulomatous disease has an ACE elevation in 70% of cases?
What granulomatous disease is diagnosed via a Kveim skin test?
Potato nodes are associated with which granulomatous disease?
The 1-2-3 sign due to lymphadenopathy is seen with which granulomatous disease?
What lymph nodes are affected in the 1-2-3 sign associated with sarcoidosis?
Bilateral hilar and right paratracheal
Garland's Triad or the Pawnbroker sign is associated with which granulomatous disease?
What is the most common soft tissue location of TB? Second? Third?
First = Lungs
Second = Lymph
Third = Kidneys
Sarcoidosis may present in a miliary pattern (TRUE/FALSE)?
____________________ is characterized by increased airway resistance and air trapping?
What four diseases comprise the spectrum of COPD?
_________________________ means lung OVERINFLATION?
_____________________ is a chronic, irreversible, progressive dilation of the air spaces distal to the terminal bronchioles with alveolar wall destruction?
What are the subtypes of emphysema?
Panlobular, Centrilobular, and Paraseptal emphysema can all result in ____________________ emphysema?
What is the most common form of emphysema?
What is the most common cause of centrilobular emphysema?
What is the most common etiology of panlobular emphysema?
Alpha 1 antitrypsin deficiency
What form of emphysema is often associated with collagen vascular diseases?
The different forms of emphysema are indistinguishable on x-ray but can be identified on a __________________?
__________________________ is characterized by irreversible overinflation and airspace confluence?
What form of emphysema involves a cyst larger than 1 cm in diameter?
Bulla that are larger than a third of one lung are called _________________ bulla?
A patient with emphysema will have a (Decreased/Elevated) respiratory rate?
What are the end stage findings of emphysema?
Pneumocystic Jirovecii carinii is an etiologic agent of _________________ pneumonia?
Which granulomatous disease is NOT an infection?
What are the physical examination findings associated with emphysema?
Prominent supraclavicular soft issue
Hyperresonance with percussion
Hypoxemia and hypercapnia
What is the percussive finding associated with emphysema?
A patient with emphysema will have prolonged (Inspiration/Expiration)?
____________________ is a decrease in the number of vessels per unit area?
A barrel chest deformity results from an increased ______________________ diameter of the chest in patients with emphysema?
What radiological findings are associated with COPD?
Widened intercostal spaces
>3.5 cm retrosternal space
Diaphragm flat (11-12th posterior ribs)
Costophrenic sulcus of 90 degrees (pseudoblunting)
Small vertical heart (Stove-pipe/Hang drop)
Enlarged hila >12 cm
A hila enlarged greater than ______________ cm may indicate COPD?
Pseudoblunting of the costophrenic sulcus is a major sign of _____________________ on a radiograph?
A retrosternal space greater than _______________ cm may indicate COPD?
What is the most objective test for the diagnosis of emphysema?
A stove pipe or hang drop heart is associated with ___________________?
Hanging vessels in the lower lung lobes is a radiographic sign associated with _________________?
Radiologically, Bullous emphysema is frequently found in the lung __________________ with crowding of vessels adjacent to the bulla?
Only ______________ % of all lung tumors are benign?
Malignant lung tumors can cause _________________ and ___________________?
Weight loss, Hemoptysis
_________________ of a mass is important in diagnosis of a lung tumor?
There is a SLIGHTLY better prognosis with malignant tumors the sooner you catch it (TRUE/FALSE)?
What is the next imaging modality to assess neoplasms of the lung and bronchi after a radiograph?
____________________________ is a strong indicator of benignity?
What is the most common lethal cancer in both men and women?
Bronchogenic carcinoma is strongly associated with __________________?
What imaging modality is the best for determining if something is calcified?
What is the rule of 20s?
20 cigarettes a day for 20 years leads to a 20x increased risk of bronchogenic carcinoma
What is a pack year?
Packs of cigarettes per day x years smoked
The five year survival rate of bronchogenic carcinoma is fantastic (TRUE/FALSE)?
What are examples of mass effect symptoms of bronchogenic carcinoma?
Superior vena cava obstruction
______________________________ cell types on a biopsy are more indicative of an aggressive bronchogenic carcinoma?
Bronchioalveolar cell carcinoma is now recognized as a form of _________________________?
What are the four subtypes of bronchogenic carcinoma?
Small cell (Oat cell)
What form of bronchogenic carcinoma is most commonly associated with tumors?
What is the most common chest tumor to invade the thoracic wall structures such as the esophagus and phrenic nerve?
What is the most common cause of a Pancoast tumor in the apex of the lung?
What is the most common tumor of the chest to cavitate?
What is the most common chest tumor to cause hypercalcemia as a paraneoplastic syndrome?
Adenocarcinoma of the lung is strongly associated with smoking (TRUE/FALSE)?
Adenocarcinoma frequently arises within _________________ in the lung?
What is the most common lung cancer to cause Cushing's syndrome due to ectopic ACTH release?
Small cell (oat cell)
Small cell carcinoma occurs (Peripherally/Centrally) in the lung?
Adenocarcinoma occurs (Peripherally/Centrally) in the lung?
What form of lung cancer has the poorest prognosis?
Small cell (oat cell)
What form of lung cancer commonly has pleural metastasis involvement?
What form of lung cancer often presents as a consolidation pattern and may be indistinguishable from pneumonia on x-ray?
What form of lung cancer is also called "Adenocarcinoma in situ"?
What is the most common orientation of bronchogenic carcinoma?
A (Central/Peripheral) presentation of bronchogenic carcinoma typically forms a solitary pulmonary nodule?
Any mass over _____________ cm in diameter is carcinoma until proven otherwise?
Shape varies, but most lung tumors are _____________________?
What is corona radiata in regards to radiography and lung tumors?
Interstitial markings emanate from a mass
A corona radiata with tumor invasion is best seen on what imaging modality?
A ____________________tumor is a lung tumor growing in the superior sulcus or apices of the lungs?
What view should be taken if a Pancoast tumor is suspected?
AP Apical Lordotic
What syndrome is associated with a Pancoast tumor?
TOS can be associated with what type of lung tumor?
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