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Extension of pia mater that extends from the conus medullaries and anchors the spinal cord to the coccyx
"Horse's Tail" Formed from the ventral nerved roots that supply the lumber, sacral, and coccygeal regions
Sympathetic Chain Ganglia
Communication point for the two motor neurons in the autonomic nervous system
Sympathetic Chain Ganglia
Located on both sides of the vertebral bodies and are part of the motor division of the autonomic nervous system
Located between the vertebrae and the duramater; Composed of adipose and blood connective tissue
Most superficial covering of the spinal cord; composed of dense irregular connective tissue
Thin layer of collagen fibers, elastic fibers and blood vessels that touches the spinal crd
Thickenings of the pia mater that stabilize the spinal cord and attach it to the arachnoid mater
Lateral Gray Horns
Only present in the thoracic and upper lumber regions; contain autonomic preganglionic motor neuron cell
Anterior (Ventral) Horns
Contain the cell bodies of somatic motor neurons and autonomic preganglionic motor neurons
arranged in columns contains ascending sensory and descending motor tracts, which are bundles of axons in the CNS
Posterior (Dorsal) White Columns
Ascending sensory tracts for touch, pressure, vibration and voluntary proprioception
Connective tissue coverings
Each spinal and cranial nerve consists of many individual axons and contains layers of protective __________________.
Innermost layer; wrap individual axons within a nerve, whether myelinated or unmyelinated
Middle layer; wraps a group of axons with their endoneirium arranged in bundles called fascicles
Network of axons from the anterior rami of spinal nerves, except for thoracic nerves T1-T11 form plexuses
Important nerves from the cervical plexuses; supply the skin and muscles of the head, neck and superior part of the shoulders and chest
Important nerves that arise from the brachial plexuses
Axillary, Musculocutaneous, Radial, Median, and Ulnar Nerve
Formed by the anterior rami of L1-L4; supplies the anterolateral abdominal wall, external genitals, and part of the lower limbs
Formed by the anterior rami of L4-L5 and S1-S4; supplies the buttocks, perineum, and lower limbs
Area of the skin that provides sensory input to the CNS via one pair of spinal nerves or the trigeminal nerve serves most of the skin of the face and scalp
Anterior Corticospinal Tract
Located in the anterior white column; Begins in the cerebral cortex (region in the brain) and ends in the spinal cord
reflex when the signal passes from one side to the same side of the spinal cord, the SAME SIDE
Reflex when the signal passes from one side to the opposite side of the spinal cord, OPPOSITE SIDE
A reflex arc includes a
Sensory receptor, Sensory neuron, Integrating center, Motor neuron and Effector
Responds to internal / external stimulus by producing a graded potential that triggers an action potential
Contraction of the skeletal muscle in response to stretching of the muscle; Monosynaptic reflex, ipsilateral; Patellar or knee-jerk reflex
Stretching of a muscle--> activation of muscle spindles--> sensory neurons--> spinal cord--> motor neuron--> contraction of the agonist muscle & relaxation of the agonist muscle
Golgi tendon organs--> tension applied to the tendon--> tendon organ stimulation--> sensory neuron carries information to the gray matter--> integration in the gray matter occurs-->motor neuron carries signal to effector; one motor neuron relaxes the agonist and the other motor neuron causes contraction of the agonist
Flexor (withdrawal) Reflex
Stepping on a tack (stimulus)--> sensory neuron carries signal to spinal cord--> activation of the interneuron to different spinal cord segments--> activation of the motor neuron in several segments of the spinal cord--> muscle contraction--> withdrawal of the leg
Crossed Extensor Reflex
Contraction of the muscles that extend joints in the opposite limb in response to a painful stimulus
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