During its early history, Rome was dominated by the?
in the early stages of the Roman republic, the patricians elected two?
in an effort to alleviate social tensions, this group was allowed to elect two and then later ten tribunes?
during times of crisis, the Romans would appoint an official with absolute power known as a?
the Roman policy toward conquered peoples was?
the Roman policy of toleration and respect for conquered peoples was most similar to the?
in the early period of Roman expansion, the principle power in the western Mediterranean was the?
During the Punic Wars, the Romans first fought the Carthaginians over the most important source of grain in the western Mediterranean. Where was it?
Rome's monumental struggle with the Carthaginians was known as the?
the turning point in Roman history was their struggle, in the Punic Wars, with the?
a seige formation that troops formed by surrounding themselves with their shields to avoid defenders' missiles while approaching city walls (literally "the tortoise")
the testudo was?
the tribune whose call for land reform led to his assassination in 132 BCE was?
a general who sided with social reformers who advocated redistribution of land
the leader, supported by the Roman aristocrats, who led a slaughter of more than 10,000 of his political enemies was?
favored liberal policies and social reform
in regard to political philosophy, Julius Caesar?
DID: centralize military and political functions, confiscated property from conservatives and distributed it to his veterans/supporters, launched large-scale building projects, extended Roman citizenship to peoples in imperial provinces
after naming himself dictator in 46 BCE, Julius Caesar did all of the following except?
a naval battle at Actium in Greece
Octavian was able to restore order to the Roman world with his victory in 31 BCE at?
Augustus was able to reunify the empire after defeating his main rivals, who were?
the last of the Ptolemaic rulers was?
a monarchy disguised as a republic
the government established by Augustus Caesar?
stimulated the development of local economies and states
the Roman conquest of Gaul, Germany, Britain, and Spain?
the period known as "pax romana" was started by?
pax romana (Roman peace)
the reign of Augustus inaugurated a period known as the?
"father of the family", the eldest male ruling the household
the phrase "pater familias" refers to?
by the second centruy CE, how much of the total population of the Roman Empire was represented by slaves?
assembled an army of 70,000 rebellious slaves
in 73 BCE, Spartacus?
Zeus was to Jupiter as Ares was to?
Vesta was the Roman goddess of?
the Roman thinker Marcus Tullius Cicero was best associated with the Hellenistic school of thought?
the most prominent school of moral philosophy in Rome was?
a god closely identified with the sun and light in Zoroastrian mythology
Jews in Palestine
from 66 to 70 CE, the Romans fought a bloody war with the?
a sect of the Jews who wrote the Dead Sea scrolls
the Essences were?
the anointed one
Jesus of Nazareth's followers called him, "Christ," which meant?
the phrase "the kingdom of God is at hand" is associated with
Paul of Tarsus
the leading figure in the expansion of Christianity beyond Judaism was ?