19th President of the United States. Came into office following the Compromise of 1877. Republican president who oversaw the Reconstruction era following the Civil War and the second industrial revolution.
21st President of the United States. Republican Vice President who came into office in 1881 after the death of James Garfield. Tried to lower tariffs but later signed the Tariff Act of 1883.
20th President of the United States. Assassinated two hundred days after his inauguration in the year 1881. Advocated Civil Rights for African Americans and a bi-metal monetary system.
Election of 1884
Event where Grover Cleveland narrowly triumphed over James G. Blaine and became President of the United States. This occurrence is known for the intensive mudslinging and personal hostility involved. The outcome from this event was the first Democratic President to be in office since before the Civil War.
Chosen as the Democratic presidential candidate in 1884. Supported Laissez-faire capitalism, as a result, he was liked by bankers and business owners. Believed that "the government should not support the people."
Beats Cleveland in 1888 for the presidency. Sponsored tariff that required those wishing to import products to pay a 48% tax. During his presidency, the Sherman Silver Purchase Act was passed, but it was repealed in 1893.
Magna Carta of civil-service reform. Made compulsory campaign contributions from federal employees illegal. Partially "divorced" politics from patronage, but it helped drive politicians into "marriages of convenience" with big business leaders.
Era of Good Stealings
This is the name of the time period after the Civil War, characterized by corrupt politics. During this period, railroad promoters cheated gullible customers, and stock-market investors were a "cinder" in the public eye. Some of the infamous men during this time period were Jubilee Jim Fisk, Jay Gould, and Boss Tweed.
Liberal Republican Revolt of 1872
Reform-minded citizens banded together to form this party. They urged the purification of the Washington administration as well as an end to military Reconstruction. Although never elected into presidency, this party frightened the Republicans into cleaning up the Republican Party.
Resumption Act of 1875
Hard-money advocates supported this. It pledged the government to the further withdrawal of greenbacks from circulation and to the redemption of all paper currency in gold at face value. Ultimately caused debtors to look for relief through silver.
Bland-Allison Act 1878
Aimed to circulate a higher amount of silver in the form of silver dollars. Advocated for by bimetallists. Although originally vetoed by President Hayes, Congress overrode him to pass it.
Stalwarts and Half-Breeds
The lifeblood of both parties was patronage -disbursing jobs by the bucketful in return for votes. Republican infighting was lead by Roscoe Cockling and James G. Blaine. This fighting deadlocked their party.
Hayes/Tilden Election 1876
One of the most controversial presidential elections ever. Decided by a political compromise. North got their presidential candidate elected, despite having 20 less electoral votes, in exchange for withdrawing troops from the Southern states of Florida, Louisiana, and South Carolina.
Compromise of 1877
Often known as the "Corrupt Bargain". Awarded the presidency to Rutherford Hayes in exchange for withdrawal of troops from the Southern states of Florida, Louisiana, and South Carolina. Made Hayes appoint at least one Southern Democrat to his cabinet.
James Fisk/Jay Gould
Two speculators who attempted to corner the gold market. They were involved in one of the many scandals that plagued the presidency of Ulysses Grant. Caused Black Friday, a stock market crash on September 24, 1869.
Required the U.S. Treasury to buy a certain amount of silver and put it into circulation as silver dollars. Vetoed by Rutherford Hayes, but overrode by Congress. Was later replaced by the Sherman Silver Purchase Act.
Tammany Hall/W. Tweed
Democratic Party political machine. Controlled New York City politics by taking advantage of immigrants. Used corrupt methods, such as graft and political patronage.
Name given to the chief entrepreneurs involved in the building of the Central Pacific Railroad. Included Leland Stanford, Collis Huntington, Mark Hopkins, and Charles Crocker. Although they walked away with tens of millions in profits, this group kept their hands relatively clean by not being involved in the bribery of congressmen.
The New Immigration
Starting in the 1880's, the homeland of the majority of immigrants to America changed from Western Europe to Southern and Eastern Europe. Included groups such as Italians, Croats, Slovaks, Greeks, and Poles. Created problems for organized labor due to language and previous government experience.
Mary Baker Eddy
Founded the Church of Christ (Christian Science) in 1879. Preached that the true practice of Christianity heals sickness, so there is no need for a doctor or medicine. Wrote a widely purchased book, Science and Health with a Key to the Scriptures.
Booker T. Washington
Believed that blacks must first gain economic equality before they gain social equality. Taught black students useful trades so they could gain self-respect and economic security. Labeled as an "accommodationist" because he stopped short of directly challenging white supremacy.
W.E.B. Du Bois
An African, French, Dutch, and Indian man who went to Harvard. He demanded complete equality for blacks and was a founder of the NAACP. Known as "Uncle Tom" because he assailed Booker T. Washington and his segregational ideas.
The New Morality
A free love movement started by Victoria Woodhull that changed the attitudes of women towards sexuality. It was characterized by increasing divorce rates, use of birth control, and talks of sexual subjects. Anthony Comstock was completely against the movement.
Applies Charles Darwin's idea of survival of the fittest to laissez-faire economics. This means that the richest of society gained wealth by hard work and the poorest are just lazy. An economic philosophy created by William Graham Sumner and Herbert Spencer.
Gospel of Wealth
An essay written by Andrew Carnegie in 1889. It was about the responsibilities of the upper class and how the wealthy were self-made and sparked the idea of Social Darwinism. Stated that money should not be given to organizations that it.
Joseph Pulitzer/William R. Hearst
They were two new journalistic tycoons. Were leaders in the techniques of sensationalism. Their work was called yellow journalism.
Indian Wars: Sioux, Nez Perce, Apache
Savage clashes. Resulted in their migration to other territories. Resulted in them giving up ancestral lands.
The Long Drive
Fed the new slaughterhouses. Texas cowboys herded from one to ten thousand cattle over plains until they reached a railroad terminal. Profitable to the luckier cattlemen who escaped Indians, stampedes, cattle fever, and other hazards.
Allowed a settler to acquire as much as 160 acres of land by living on it for five years, improving it, and paying a nominal fee of about $30. Was profitable to farmers who could not afford to buy large holdings. However, many had problems with drought.
Safety Valve Theory
Specified migration as an alternative to unemployment. A hopeful belief that ended for many unemployed Americans. Ended alongside westward expansion.
Frederick Turner/Turner Thesis
Argument made by a noted historian regarding the American Frontier. Stated that the unexplored west distinguished United States. Delivered in 1893
Female populist leader. Lead the pro farmer populist movement with Ignatius Donelly. Associated with the Farmer's Alliance
Patrons of Husbandry
Also known as the Grange. Founded by Oliver Kelley. Attempted to raise the quality of life for farmers through social, educational, and fraternal activities.
Helen Hunt Jackson
Wrote "A Century of Dishonor". Wrote "Ramona". Sympathized with Native Americans.
This group was the first ever to appropriate a specific sum of money. It was dominated by Thomas B. Reed. It paid benefits to Civil War veterans and purchased silver, but also passed a tariff to keep revenue coming in.
Silver Purchase Act/Pension Act
These two pieces of legislation gave money to veterans and also increased the purchasing of a specific metal. They were passed by the Billion-Dollar Congress. Because of these two acts, the McKinley Tariff was passed to keep revenue flowing to congress.
The McKinley Tariff
This act boosted rates to the highest level ever in peacetime. It drove farmers further into debt. As a result, the republicans lost their majority in congress in the elections of 1890.
This person supported William McKinley, and organized a campaign for him. Believed that the primary function of the government was to aid businesses. Was accused of buying the election for McKinley.
William Jennings Bryan
Lost to William McKinley in the election of 1896. Advocated free silver, anti-imperialism, and trust busting. Famous for his Cross of Gold speech.
Hicks vs. Hofstadter
One historian portrayed the Populists as a group of small farmers, defying Wall Street and fighting to keep their simple way of life. Another historian criticized this point of view, saying that the Populists were romanticized, and in reality were just "harassed little country businessman." In the end, most historians agree that the Populists were radicals but also has unrealistic aspirations for an agrarian country,
Election of 1892
Saw former president Grover Cleveland run against incumbent Benjamin Harrison. It focused on the national issue of a stable currency. Cleveland won, becoming the first and only president to be elected to two non-consecutive terms.
Alfred T. Mahan
Believed that the most powerful navy would control the world. Influenced the naval strategy of navies across the world, especially the United State's. Wrote The Influence of Sea Power on Naval History.
William Hope Harvey
Best known for his book Bimtallism. Built health resort called Monte Ne. His ideas became basis for the American Populist Party.
This regarded the distribution of land to Native Americans in Indian Territory. Provided division of tribally held lands to settlements. Named after a senator of Massachusetts.
23rd president of the United States. Also appointed to U.S Senate later on. Passed acts like Sherman Antitrust Act.
Thomas Czar Reed
U.S representative from Maine and also Speaker of the house from 1889-1891. Leader of Republican party. Served under president Cleveland and Mckinley.
Germany agreed not to sink unarmed passenger ships without warning. Germany eventually broke this pledge. Wilson threatened to break diplomatic relations because Germany returned to unrestricted submarine warfare.
Policy of Theodore Roosevelt in 1912's
The central issue he argued was government protection of human welfare and property rights, but also argued that human welfare was more important than property rights.
He insisted that only a powerful federal government could regulate the economy and guarantee social justice.
Serbian in the Mlada Bosna movement. Assassinated Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria and his wife, Sophie, Duchess of Hohenberg. Kick started WWI
Introduced by Wilson in 1918. Designed to prevent future wars. Only thing that remained from this was the League of Nations.
Von Schlieffen Plan
German overall strategic plan for fighting two fronts in WWI. Plan consisted of defeating French in the west quickly then moving east to fight Russia. Developed so Germany would only have to fight on one front at a time
Robert M. LaFollette
Governor of Wisconsin. Leader of the National Progressive Republican League. Fought for control from the trusts and returned power to the people
Pure Food and Drug Act
Created in 1906. Tried to prevent the adulteration and the mislabeling of foods and pharmaceuticals. A reason for this new act was to make sure European markets could trust American meat and food.
Republican governor of California elected in 1910. Helped break the dominant grip of the Southern Pacific Railroad on California politics. Set up his own political machine.
Newlands Reclamation Act
Created in 1902. Funded irrigation projects in the 20 states in the American west. Led to the formation of the Roosevelt Dam and dozens more dams.
This was an agency that helped administrate the Allies' food reserves. It was headed by Herbert Hoover. It became the American Relief Administration in 1919.
Warren G. Harding
This president was notorious for his Ohio Gang. In his presidential campaign after WWI, he promised a return to "normalcy". In polls, he has been regarded one of the worst presidents.
This began with a rebellion in Saint Petersburg, Russia. Due to this uprising, Russia drops out of WWI. This group that took part in the uprising was started by Vladimir Lenin.
James M. Cox
This man was the Democratic candidate for the election of 1920. He liked the internationalist policies of Woodrow Wilson and was a fan of entering the League of Nations. During a railroad accident, this man told the town's only telegraph writer to transmit the Bible to his newspaper while he went to investigate and write about the accident.
The Big Four
Four countries allied in World War I. Included US, France, Britain and Italy, represented by Wilson, David Lloyd George, Georges Clemenceau, and Vittorio Orlando, respectively. Met to write the Treaty of Versailles.
Coined by Harding after World War I. Result of the decreasing progressive spirit. Americans would return to the way of life before the war.
Treaty of Versailles
Treaty officially ended World War I. Required Germany to take all the blame for the war and pay reparations. A cause of World War II.
Sent by Germany to Mexico proposing an alliance to fight against US. Germans would help Mexico recover Texas, New Mexico and Arizona upon victory. Intercepted by the British.
One group was dissenters of the ratification of the Treaty of Versailles and opposed US entry of WWI. Other group support the treaty of Versailles after changes were added to it. Leaders of each were Robert La Follette, and Henry Lodge respectively.
He was an American journalist and famous muckraker. He was editor of McClure's magazine. He wrote "The Shame of the Cities."
Northern Securities Case
It was a court case between a major railroad company and the United States. J.P Morgan and James J. Hill were involved. It ordered that the railroad company should be dissolved.
Wrote a series in Cosmopolitan called "The Treason of the Senate." He said 75/90 senators did not represent people, but represented the trusts. He was shot.
Meat Inspection Act
Act made to stop spread of harmful bacteria to American citizens. It was placed on cattle and poultry. Made because of the lack of sanitation in the industry.
Taft urged Americans to invest abroad. Wall Street put profits around the world. Helped to have economic control over these areas.
Theodore Roosevelt's domestic program. Included the 3 ideas of the control of corporations, conservation of the environment and consumer protection. It aimed at helping middle class citizens.
Initiative, Referendum, Recall
Progressive party standpoint that said that voters could directly propose legislation. People could vote on laws that affected them. People can also remove bad officials from office.
Henry Demarest Lloyd
He was a muckraker. Exposed the corruption of the monopoly of the Standard Oil Company. Wrote "Wealth Against Commonwealth."
A muckraker. He is most well known for his eye-opening book about the corruption of the meat packing industry in the early 20th century. His book influenced the coming about of the Meat Inspection Act as well as the Pure Food and Drug Act.
William Howard Taft
Secretary of War under Theodore Roosevelt. One of the main leaders of the Progressive movement. He would go on to become a Republican President.
Proposed that the entrance to World War I would ultimately lead to a world that was "safe for democracy". Led a campaign called "New Freedom" which focused on individualism and states' rights.
Presidential Campaign led by Wilson in 1912. Focused on individualism and states' rights. Consisted of 3 types of reform: Tariff Reform, Business Reform, and Banking Reform.
A main leader of the Progressive movement of the early 1900s. Author and founder of the magazine "The New Republic." Wrote books such as, Progressive Democracy and The promise of American Life influencing the spread of Democracy and Progressive ideals
Also known as the Revenue Act of 1913. Re-imposed the 16th Amendment. Signed by President Woodrow Wilson.
One of the founders of the Industrial Workers of the World. Lead strikes against the Pullman Palace Car Company. Known as a socialist leader.
Federal Reserve Act
Legislation that created the central banking system within the United States. It allows for banks to lend out loans. Signed into law by Woodrow Wilson.
Louis D. Brandeis
Appointed by Woodrow Wilson to be a justice on the Supreme Court. Helped passed major supreme court decisions during FDR's New Deal campaign. Very liberal and fought against monopolies like JP Morgan and other big corporations.
Reform Amendments (16-19)
Progressive changes to the constitution. Called for a direct election of senators, federal income tax, prohibition of alcohol, and women's suffrage. Under the presidency of Roosevelt, Taft, and Wilson.
A Muckraking journalist. Used his photography for social reform. Wrote How the Other Half Lives.
Amended the Interstate Commerce Act of 1887. Did not allow railroad rebates. Sponsored by Roosevelt in his "Square Deal"
Muckraking woman journalist. Wrote The History of the Standard Oil Company. Caused reform and the break up of the Standard Oil Company.
Railroad Legislation. Gave the Interstate Commerce Commission (ICC) the ability to set maximum railroad rates. Made it so there are no free passes given to loyal railroad customers.
Treaty of Portsmouth
It ended the Russo-Japanese War. Was lead by Theodore Roosevelt. Roosevelt weakened relations with Japanese and Russia, didn't please either side.
U.S concerned with the statuses of the territories. Supreme Court said that the constitutional rights do not necessarily continue to the territories. People in territories may not have any constitutional rights.
Was when Argentina decided to extend the Monroe Doctrine. No foreign power including the U.S, could use force to collect debt against any American nation.
Was the 26th president of the United States. He was the leader of the Rough Riders. Was very popular, had the nickname "Trust Buster". Went to Africa to go shoot lions.
League of Nations
Proposed in Woodrow Wilson's Fourteen Points. Public opinion of the United States was against this program. Put into action at the Versailles Conference, it lasted for 26 years.
American journalist. Head of the Committee on Public Information. Promoted public support of WWI and Woodrow Wilson.
Espionage and Sedition Acts
Legislation passed in 1917/1918. Allowed punishment for criticizing the government, making false statements, or inciting rebellion. Used to counteract he Red Scare.
Head of the War Industries Board, appointed by Wilson. Previously a Wall Street stockbroker. Used to organize the economy so it would withstand the war.
Legislation signed by Wilson in 1916. Granted full territorial status to the Philippines. Promised independence as soon as a stable government was established.
John J. Pershing
General officer of the United States Army. Sent by Wilson to capture Villa in Mexico but failed. Lead the Americans to their on front during WWI.
A British passenger liner carrying arms and munitions. Germany sent out flyers before attacking. Was suck by German U-boats.
Kaiser Wilhem II
The German leader during WWI. Americans made an anti-German film about him. Was overthrown on November 11th during armistice.
Charles Evans Hughes
Reformist Republican governor of New York. Ran for president against Wilson in the election of 1916. Urged America to join WWI.
Signed by President Taft. Lowered Tariffs. Cause and uproar of the Taft's Progressives.
Founding leader of the Woman's Christian Temperance Union. Championed planned parenthood. Created largest organization of women in the world.
Caused the firing of the chief of the Agriculture Department's Division of Forestry and a stalwart Rooseveltian. This really caused Roosevelt to become upset with President Taft. Started with the opening of public land in Wyoming, Montana, and Alaska.
An American Protestant Clergyman, organizer, editor, and author. One of the founders of the Social Gospel movement. Wrote Our Country: Its Possible Future and Its Present Crisis (1885).
Coined "the most important American strategist of the nineteenth century". Wrote The Influence of Sea Power Upon History, 1660-1783 (1890). His ideas still permeate the U.S. Navy.
William Randolph Hearst
An American newspaper magnate and leading newspaper publisher. Known for his creation of "yellow journalism". Controlled The San Francisco Examiner and The New York Journal.
Introduced the techniques of "new journalism" to the newspapers that he controlled. Contested with William Randolph Hearst for popular New York magazine. Most widely known for his posthumous creation: an award for achievements in writing.
Admiral of the United States Navy. Best known for his victory at the Battle of Manila Bay during the Spanish-American War. Only person in history to attain the rank of Admiral of the Navy in the United States.
The first President of the Philippines. Filipino general, politician, and independence leader. Played an important role in the Philippines' revolution against Spain and the Philippine-American War that followed.
Reply to President William McKinley's War Message. Placed military bases in Cuba. Stated that the United States could not annex Cuba.
Replaces the Teller Amendment. Stipulated the conditions in which the remaining United States troops in Cuba were to be withdrawn after the Spanish-American War. Created the Guantanamo Bay Naval Base.
War Industries Board
Lead by Bernard Baruch. Created in the midst of World War 1 in 1917. Dealt with buying war supplies.
Served in World War 1. He was a key General. He fought for the French.
Was broken down into the Central Powers and the Allies. Had a large focus on Europe. Occurred in the early 20th century.
Henry Cabot Lodge
He tried to get the United States into the League of Nations. Known for trying to get the Treaty of Versailles ratified. An American, Republican, and a Politician.
U.S. Isolationism policy. This policy was named after a president. Basically said that the U.S. will take care of the Americas, and Europe will take care of Europe
Original plan was introduced in 1823. Stated that efforts by European countries interfering with states in the America would be viewed as acts of aggression requiring U.S. intervention. Adapted in 1904 by President Roosevelt.
Open Door Policy
Introduced in 1898 by President McKinley. Result of China being in political and economic disarray. Allowed all trading nations access to the Chinese market.
The 26th President. Became president after the assassination of President McKinley. Was responsible for the completion of the Panama Canal. Sent out the Great White Fleet to display American power. He negotiated an end to the Russo-Japanese War.
The Roosevelt Corollary
Introduced by President Roosevelt in 1904 and was an extension of the Monroe Doctrine. Asserted the right for the U.S. to intervene in order to "stabilize" the economic affairs of small states in the South America if they were unable to pay their international debts. Was a reaction to the U.S. assumption that European powers were trying to take advantage of underprivileged countries.
Federal Trade Commission
This law authorized a presidentially-appointed commission to oversee industries involved in interstate commerce.
This man took advantage of the US entrance into Mexico by overthrowing Victoriano Huerta. Wilson reluctantly supported this man after the fall of Victoriano Huerta's regime. Became president of Mexico after Huerta.
Clayton Anti-Trust Act
This was supported by Samuel Gompers. It extended the Sherman Act's list of business practices. Also it sought to exempt labor and agricultural organizations from anti-trust prosecution as well as legalizing strikes and non-violent picketing.
Mexican hero and rebel. He helped overthrow Victoriano Huerta's regime. Initially supported by Woodrow Wilson, but Wilson withdrew his support after seeing that he was following the government of Venustiano Carranza. Attacked US assets in retaliation, causing the withdrawal of US grasp on Mexico.