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AP Human Geography Full Essay Test
Terms in this set (38)
What is a world city? Give 2 examples.
They are polycentric metropolises consisting of international companies and telecommunication hubs. Examples include: London,England, and Tokyo,Japan.
What is the difference between site and situation?
Site is a city's exact location or physical characteristics, and situation is the location relative to surrounding areas.
Give 3 characteristics of Burgess's Model
1) CBD in middle
2) Around that is zone of transition
3) Next is the Independent workers' homes
Give 3 characteristics of Hoyt's Model
1)Low income homes near railroad lines
2)Commercial businesses near main roads
3)Main focus is transportation
Give 3 characteristics of Harris's and Ullman's Model.
Also called the multiple nuclei model
1) Specialized cells of activity
2)Similar economic activities together
3)Heavy industry located near edge of city
Give 3 characteristics of the Urban Realms Model.
Pepperoni pizza model
1) CBD and center city in the center
2) CBD is surrounded by suburban downtowns
3)Airport in the south
What is Urban Morphology?
Study of urban structure and how it changes. "cityscapes"
Give 2 reasons why farmers have moved to the suburbs.
1) They can get a steady wage that is reliable, unlike farming.
2) Better schools
What is the Post-industrial Transition reference in cities?
1) It is the shift from production of goods to provision of services.
2) Producing ideas is the main way to grow the economy.
Give 2 reasons why farmers on excellent soil farms near cities are selling.
1) They are being offered millions of dollars for their land.
2) They can move to the city and live off of the money.
Give 2 characteristics of South East Asian cities.
1) Rapidly growing
2) Many coastal cities
3) Very diverse culturally
What is Nucleation and why has it occurred in the Middle East?
Nucleation is coming together and clustering.
Name 3 characteristics of the Suburban or Edge city.
1)A relatively large urban area on the outskirts of a city.
2)Contain manufacturing centers
3) Specialized nodes emerge here, like a collection of hotels and warehouses around a hotel.
Name 2 things you would find in the CBD.
1) A concentration of business and commerce
2) Clustering of the tallest building
Name 2 favorable site factors where cities are found.
2) Hong Kong- island and peninsula
What are squatter settlements and where are they found?
An area within a city in a less developed country in which people illegally establish residences on land they do not own or rent and erect homemade structures. They are found in places like Venezuela, Chile, and Brazil in the slums.
What is redlining and why is it used?
It is the refusal by financial institutions to lend money to risky neighborhood development. It is used so that they do not waste time and money by lending to certain neighborhoods, and it creates ghettos.
What is Urban Renewal?
It is under this in which cities identify blighted innercity neighborhoods, acquire the properties from private owners, relocate the residents and businesses, clear the site, and build new roads and utilities. Or, the clearing and rebuilding of the urban slums.
What is Zoning?
The process of planning for land use by a locality to allocate certain kinds of structures in certain areas. Zoning also includes restrictions in different zoning areas, such as height of buildings, use of green space, density (number of structures in a certain area), use of lots, and types of businesses.
Define "The City"
The city is a place where there are large permanent settlements, dense clusters of a socially heterogeneous people, and specialized and primarily non-agricultural activities.
What are the six functions of a city?
The six functions of a city are: the center of government, center of education, the common defense is provided for, recreation centers, religious centers, and a trade center.
Define "Primate City" and give 5 examples
A pre industrial city that still exists today. Primate cities have all the major features of the culture located in them. They are also defined as statistically having more than twice the number of the population found in the second largest city. Primate cities are best considered in terms of their cultural impact. They are the centers of the population's culture and people feel they must be in the Primate City in order to be successful. Five examples are Buenos Aires, Mexico City, London, Paris, and Bogota.
Give Borchert's 5 epochs (include dates) and give 2 examples of cities in each
1.)Sail-Wagon Epoch(1790-1830) Boston and New York
2.)Iron Horse Epoch(1830-1870) Pittsburgh and Detroit
3.)Steel-Rail Epoch(1870-1920) Cleveland and Milwaukee
4.)Auto-Air Epoch(1920-1970) Phoenix and Los Angeles
5.)High-Technology Epoch(1970-2000) Silicon Valley and the Metroplex.
Give four reasons why cities grew in (A) Medieval Europe,(B) England in the 1700s, and(C)U.S. in 1800s
(A)Medieval Europe-Four features attracted more people to Medieval cities-The fortress supplied a fortified seat of power, the wall provided some protection for the city, the marketplace provided a zone of active economic, political, social, and religious activity, and the cathedral was often the most dramatic architecture in the city, being that religion was the center of medieval life. An additional reason why people flocked to the cities during this time was because if a person could exist in a city for a year without recapture, he or she would be freed of obligation to a feudal lord.
(B)England in the 1700s-Four reasons why cities grew in England in the 1700s include: industrialization, wealth, political power, and changing thoughts that began to take hold.
(C)U.S. in 1800s- Four reasons why cities grew in the U.S. in the 1800s include: industrialization, welath, political power, and changing thoughts that began to take hold.
What are 3 differences between Greek cities vs. Roman cities?
Three differences include: Every Greek city had an Acropolis, the Romans had an advance in the ability to transport water to city population, and the magnificent paved road structure that connected Rome to its empire.
What are 3 characteristics of Sub-Saharan cities, Canadian cities, European cities, and Latin American cities?
3 characteristics of Sub-Saharan cities are: Major rapid growth, colonial imprints are visible, and the three CBD's(market CBD, remanent colonial CBD, and the business CBD).
3 Characteristics of Canadian cities are: Multiple dwellings are more common, underdeveloped suburbs, and not as much wealth.
3 characteristics of European cities are: Efforts to sustain central city areas, mixed socioeconomic areas, and cities are more compact.
3 characteristics of Latin American cities are: There is rapid growth, they are very diverse culturally, and office buildings are smaller.
What are 2 effects of the Silk Road on cities?
Two effects of the Silk Road on cities include: the people in the cities are able to trade goods more easily to other cities and that technologies and religions also passed along the route and were embraced and developed in different cities.
Define and give 2 characteristics of Functional Specialization
Functional specialization is a city that specializes in either basic economic activity or non-basic economic activity. Two characteristics of functional specialization are: Manufacturing cities and Retail Centers.
Define the Multiplier effect
For every "basic sector" job that is added to a city, two "non-basic sector" jobs are added.
Define Rank-size rule
The population of a city is inversely proportional to its rank in the hierarchy.
Define: Threshold, range, hinterland, centrality, economic reach and gentrification
Threshold-The minimum number of people needed to support the product.
Range-The distance you will drive for a product or service(a pizza or refrigerator).
Hinterland- A region that supports a town or a city with agricultural products and raw materials.
Centrality- Strength of an urban center to attract producers and consumers to its facilities.
Economic reach- Every urban center has a certain reach measured by its "centrality."
Gentrification- A process through which higher income people repopulate an area, which once was an upper class neighborhood but had been abandoned and taken over by lower income people.
List problems of European cities in the 17th century
Problems of European cities in the 17th century include: only 2 percent of the population of Germany, France, and England was urban, feudal cities were bleak and dirty, and preindustrial cities were based on commerce.
List 2 reasons LDC cities are growing so fast-give 2 examples
LDC cities are growing so fast, because of migration of rural residents to cities in search of jobs in manufacturing or services and by high natural increase rates. Two examples are Mexico City and Jakarta.
What are empowerment zones and the pepperoni pizza model?
Empowerment zones are zones that give assistance, opportunity, and resources to inner cities and poor rural areas. The pepperoni pizza model is a model that is composed of many edge cities and is very similar to the urban realms model.
Name 3 effects of agglomeration on cities
3 effects of agglomeration on cities include: the costs of production declining significantly in companies, a higher growth rate in cities, and new product ideas for the city.
Name 3 characteristics of the "zone of transition" in the American city
Three characteristics of the zone of transition include: industry and poorer-quality housing, small dwelling units that are frequently created by subdividing larger houses into apartments, and rooming houses for single individuals.
Explain Christaller's Central Place Theory and its effects on urban functions
The theory is based on each central place has a surrounding complementary region, an exclusive hinterland within which the town has a monopoly on the sale of certain goods. Its effects on urban functions include: Ranks of urban places that form an orderly hierarchy of central places in spatial balance.
Describe 2 North American megalopolises
Two North American Megalopolises include: the northeastern zone between Boston and Washington D.C. and the southern California zone from Los Angeles to Tijuana.
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