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Sociology Quiz 1
Terms in this set (42)
I. Planning a Research Study
1. Define a topic or problem that can be scientifically investigated
2. Review existing relevant research studeies and theory to refine the topic and define variables
3. Formulate hypotheses or research questions and operationalize variables
II. Designing the Research Method and Collecting the Data
4. Design the research method that specifies how the data will be gathered
5. Select a sample of people/groups from the population to study
6. Collect the data using appropriate research methods
III. Making Sense of the Data
7. Analyze the data, figuring out exactly what the study says about the research questions
8. Draw conclusions and present the final report, including suggestions for future research
scientific study of social life, social change, and social causes and consequences of human behavior
Social World Model
helps us picture the levels of analysis in our social surroundings as an interconnected series of small groups, organizations etc.
interconnected parts of the social world
system that holds societies together and brings order to our lives by regulating the way the units work in combination.
found in every society- family, education, religion, politics, economics- provides rules, roles, and relationships to meet human needs and guide behavior
actions taken by people in social units
face to face interactions forms the basic foundation of all social groups and organizations
looking at units smaller than the nation but larger than the community i.e., national institutions
involves analyzing entire nations, global forces, and international social trends
involve systematic, planned observation and recording of behavior or interaction in natural settings, and can take several forms.
how people create shared meanings regarding symbols and events and then interact on the basis of those meanings
Rational choice theory
assumes that human behavior involves choices and that people chart a course of action based on rational decisions and self-interest
Structural functionalist theory
assumes that all parts of the social structure, the culture, and social processes work together to make the whole society run smoothly and harmoniously
conflict is inevitable in any group or society
consists of ideas and "things" that are passed on from one generation to the next in a society
consists of individuals who live together in a specific geographic area who interact more with each other than they do with outsiders who have common goals
the glue that holds society together through shared beliefs, values and traditions
is found in societies in which social cohesion (glue) is baed on division of labor, with each member playing a highly specialized role in the society
people rely directly on plants and animals in their habitat to live
food-producing strategies based on keeping herds of domesticated animals whose care is the central focus of their activities
keep domesticated animals but focus on primitive agriculture or gardening
tendency to view ones own group and its cultural expectations as right, proper and superior to others
view that requires setting aside cultural and personal beliefs and prejudices to understand another group and society through the members
shared judgements about what is desirable or undesirable right or wrong good or bad
more specific ideas we hold about life about the way society works
rules of behavior shared by members of a society and rooted in the value system
norms that most members observe because they have great moral significance in a society
customs or desirable behaviors but they are not strictly enforced
are the strongest form of mores concerning actions considered unthinkable or unspeakable in the culture
the way of life of a group that is smaller than the nation but large enough to support people throughout their life span
group with expectations and values that contrast sharply with the dominant values of a particular society
lifelong process of learning to become a member of the social world
basic building block of socialization
refers to the perceptions we have of who we are
looking glass self
reflective process based on our interpretations of the reactions of others
individuals imaging themselves in positions of others
Agents of socialization
transmitters of culture- people, organizations, institutions that teach us how to thrive in our social world
socialization is the stated goal, official or lgeal responsibility for instructing individs.
do not have express purpose of socialization, but function as unofficial forces that shapes values, beliefs, and behaviors
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