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Bacterial Growth

Lag: metabolic activity without division
Log: rapid cell division
Stationary: nutrient depletion slows growth
Death: prolonged nutrient depletion and build up of waste products

Bacterial Sex



What: ability to take up DNA from the environment

Who: SHiN (S.pneumonia, H.influenzae, Neisseria)


Two Types:
1)F+ x F-: F+ plasmid transfers to F-
***only plasmid DNA is transferred

2)Hfr x F-: F+ plasmid can become incorporated into bacterial chromosomal DNA(Hfr cell)
***transfer of plasmid may include some flanking chromosomal DNA


What: segment of DNA that can jump from one location to another

So: Genes can be transferred from chrom to plasma and vice versa


Generalized ("packaging event"):

-Lytic phage infects bacterium leading to cleavage of bacterial DNA and synthesis of viral proteins
***Parts of bacterial DNA may become packaged in viral capsule and transferred to next bacteria that phage infects


Specialized("excision event")

1)Lysogenic phage infects bacterium and incorporates viral DNA into bacterial chromosome
2)When phae DNA is excised, flanking bacterial genes may be excised with it
3)DNA is packaged into phage viral capsid and can infect another bacterium

Bacterial genes that have undergone Specialized tranduction

1)shigA-like toxin
2)Botulinum toxin
3)Cholera toxin
4)Diptheria toxin
5)Erythrogenic toxin of Strep pyogenes

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