listening, say very little, unbiased state of events, diverging conversation into something else.
o Freud- believed that the roots of abnormal behavior began before 5 years old. Because they were developed so early, he thought that individuals had no conscious memory of them, but the unconscious memory of them would influence behavior.
o 3 levels of consciousness
o Id- basic instinctual drives, unconscious, out of our awareness.
o Ego-The mediator between the drives of the id and the restrictions of society. Has both conscious and unconscious components.
o Superego- imposes moral constraint on the id's impulses. Both unconscious and conscious.
o Eros- God of love, Thanatos- god of death. Everything that motivates us is a product of creation, pleasure focused, distractions, anger, fear.
o Fixation- 5 different psychosexual stages. Happens when too little or too much gratification.
o Treatment- goal is insight. Transference, projecting patient's emotion onto the therapist. Free association- minimizes conscious control and tells the therapist everything that comes to mind. Dream analysis- encouraged to recount their dreams. Interpretation- the therapist makes interpretations about associations between the past and the present.
o Psychosexual stages
- Oral Stage- 0-1 year. Sucking and chewing are pleasurable experiences and aggressive impulses occur after teeth development.
- Anal Stage- 1-3 years. Toilet training. Emphasis on discipline. Aggressive impulses could lead to personality traits of negativism, destructivity, and hostility.
- Phallic Stage- 3-5. Genitals. Derive pleasure from touching themselves. May have fantasies about the opposite sex parent.
o Disadvantages-expensive, takes awhile, falsely blames parents for situation a lot
o Assumptions-1) Psychic determinism- behavior is guided by our inner forces, id, ego, superego. All of our behavior can be read from our inner conflicts.
2) Unconscious motivation- we are not always aware of our behavior.
3) Psychosexual stages- any problem you have as an adult can be traced back to age 12.
4) Insight to change
- all behavior is learned as result of experiences or interactions in the environment.
o Watson, Pavlov, classical conditioning- a conditioned stimulus is paired with an unconditional stimulus and that always produces a unconditional response. Little Albert- emotional aspects such as fear could be learned through classical conditioning. Little Albert's fear of a white rat was paired with a loud noise.
o B.F. Skinner, operant conditioning- reinforcement, punishment
o Bandura, vicarious conditioning- no trial learning, can learn a behavior through directly watching another person perform the behavior.
o Systematic desensitization- expose patient to what is being feared
o Aversive conditioning- pairing the negative stimulus with something negative, and the positive stimulus with something positive.
o Positives- treatments are affective, have results, testable
o Disadvantages- over simplifying, hard if the person has multiple disorders, doesn't explain all disorders, makes people a victim of their environment.
1) Behaviors are learned
2) Behaviors that can be observed are measured