psych 2010-605 chapter 5b (Operant Conditioning) learning curve

By _____ a behavior, it increases the chances that it will occur again
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Since she has oversight responsibility for the servicing and repair of her company's fleet of cars, Rhonda frequently calls the garage mechanic to inquire whether service on various cars has been completed. Service completion times are unpredictable, so she is likely to be reinforced with positive responses to her inquiries on a _____ schedule.
Janet is trying to teach her three-year-old how to dress himself. First she has him put on his pants by himself, and she gives him some M&Ms. The next day she has him put on his pants and his shirt, and she gives him some M&Ms. By the end of the week her son is dressing himself completely. Janet is making use of the principle of:
If children get attention for doing cartwheels, they will repeat the trick if they find this attention to be enjoyable. This illustrates:operant conditioning.A pigeon in operant chamber 1 regularly receives a pellet of food after every 10 pecks at a red disk, no matter how long it takes. A rat in operant chamber 2 regularly receives a pellet of food for the first bar press it makes after 10 minutes have passed, no matter how many bar presses it makes. The pigeon is on a _____ schedule of reinforcement, and the rat is on a _____ schedule of reinforcement.fixed-ratio; fixed-intervalJake can make his sister Joy give him her toys or candy by whistling. Because she hates the sound so much, Joy will give Jake whatever he wants to make him stop. When Jake stops whistling, it is _____ for Joy.negative reinforcementFor professional baseball players, swinging at a pitched ball is reinforced with a home run on a _____ schedule.variable-ratioWhen Juanita gets paid, she uses her money to buy food to feed her family. For Juanita, money is a _____ reinforcer and food is a _____ reinforcer.conditioned; primaryDarryl has a new trick he taught his pet ferret. While playing video football, he scores a touchdown. He gives a signal to the ferret. The ferret runs over to its cage and "kicks" a miniature football through a small goal post set up in the cage. Darryl probably used _____ to get the ferret to perform this trickShapingAnaika's mother told Anaika that she cannot leave her room until she cleans it. Anaika cleans her room because she hates being grounded to her room. Being grounded to her room until she cleans it is an example of:negative reinforcement.Larry is learning to crawl and every time he gets on his knees, his mother applauds and says, "Go Larry!" Larry's mother is using a(n) _____ schedule of reinforcement.continuousWhich behavior is LEAST likely to be studied by researchers using classical conditioning techniques?button pressingEver since Lacy got her new iPhone, she is often on the Internet and does not answer her phone. It is difficult for her sister to know when to call her, so she tries at random times. It appears that her phoning Lacy is reinforced on a _____ schedule.variable-interval (VI)According to the box "In Focus: Changing the Behavior of Others: Alternatives to Punishment," what would NOT be considered an alternative strategy to punishment?reinforcing the problem behaviorRicardo receives attention from his teacher in the form of a scolding every time he misbehaves. As a result, Ricardo misbehaves quite frequently. In this instance, it would appear that the teacher's scolding is a:positively reinforcing stimulus.Helmut is employed by his university as a telephone solicitor for a fund-raising drive. He is paid a set amount of money for every 10 calls he makes regardless of whether he is successful in raising funds. Helmut's telephoning is reinforced on a _____ schedule of reinforcement.fixed-ratio (FR)Jack finds it extremely difficult to pull himself away from the blackjack table. He keeps thinking that the next hand will be his winning one. This is a _____ schedule.variable-ratioMatt regularly buckles his seat belt simply because it turns off the car's irritating warning buzzer. This best illustrates the value of:negative reinforcement.Three-year-old Todd enjoys having books read to him and frequently asks to be read to. Todd hates to have his hair washed and will run and hide if he sees his parent get the shampoo out. Edward Thorndike would explain his behaviors using the law of:effectGeri puts up her umbrella soon after it starts to rain to prevent her clothes from getting any wetter. This example illustrates _____ behavior and _____ reinforcement.escape; negativeSchedules of reinforcement are based on the finding that conditioned behaviors:often continue or even become strengthened by irregular reinforcement.A teacher wanted to increase class participation, so she positively reinforced students who asked questions by giving them nickels when they participate in class discussions. After a few days, students had stacks of nickels on their desks and were asking far too many questions. To reduce question asking, the teacher could remove a nickel whenever students asked a question, a process known as _____. Or, she could simply stop giving students nickels when they asked questions, a process known as _____.negative punishment; extinctionFiona uses an expensive antiwrinkle night cream every night in order to prevent wrinkles from appearing. Fiona is experiencing a form of negative reinforcement, with putting on the night cream as the _____ response that decreases the _____ stimulus of getting wrinkles in the future.operant; aversiveAfter studying very hard last semester, Sasha got very good grades in all her courses. She felt proud of herself, a very good feeling. This semester, Sasha is once again studying very hard. It appears that good grades are _____ for Sasha's studying behavior.positive reinforcersBecca studies very hard to avoid getting bad grades because she finds a bad grade a devastating experience. Becca's increased studying behavior is maintained by:negative reinforcement.Every time two-year-old Tatiana hits her younger brother, Tatiana's mother brings her to her room for a time-out and stays with her, giving her the attention that she desires. What Tatiana's mother doesn't realize is that she is conforming to the fundamental behavioral principle known as _____ by reinforcing her daughter's behavior.operant conditioningDinah always wears her sunglasses on her head so that she can put them on anytime the sun gets in her eyes. This example illustrates _____ behavior and _____ reinforcement.escape; negativePositive reinforcement involves the _____ of a stimulus when a behavior occurs, and positive punishment involves the _____ of a stimulus when a behavior occurs.presentation; presentation