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Bio Psych: The Brain
Terms in this set (58)
What are the 2 branches of the autonomic nervous system?
Parasympathetic nervous system
vegetative, energy conserving functions
decreases HR, increases salivation and digestion
ACh is NT used
sympathetic nervous system
fight or flight
increases HR, sweating, breathing, decreases digestion, salivation
uses NE as NT
Reticular Formation (ARAS)
activated by almost any stimulus
diffuse coneections w. entire cortex
has diffuse connections
hippocampus, hypothalamus, amygdala, cingulate gyrus
fear, emotional memories
processes fear response
memory (spatial memory, transfer of information to LTM)
Large clusters of neurons, located above the thalamus and under the cerebral cortex, that work with the cerebellum and the cerebral cortex to control and coordinate voluntary movements.
A nucleus in the basal ganglia that is a crucial part of the brain's reward mechanism
A Subcortical structure that relays and filters information from the senses and transmits the information to the cerebral cortex.
A round, knoblike structure of the brain responsible for processing the sense of smell. Specialized olfactory receptor cells are located in a small patch of mucous membrane lining the roof of the nose. Axons of these sensory cells pass through perforations in the overlying bone and enter two elongated olfactory bulbs lying on top of the bone.
What is the relationship between brain size and IQ?
intelligence correlated with gray matter in brain
What are the differences in the brains of men and women?
Men have larger brains than women but IQ is the same.
Various structural differences in brain exist between men and women
Left/right cortex, hippocampus and amygdala
Explanations of differences in cognitive abilities can perhaps be better explained by interest than abilities.
Women have more & deeper convolutions in gray matter; so number of neurons in men = women.
maps brain areas but exposes brain to Xrays
maps brain, uses magnetic field
What are ways to record the brain activity during behavior?
EEG, PET, fMRI
records electrical potentials from electrodes on the scalp; overall activity, low resolution for location
measures changes over time and location but exposes brain to radiation; also expensive and found in mostly major research hospitals
measures changes over about 1 sec; quite good location and does not use radiation
Ways to study brain damage effects
transcranial magnetic stimulation
study of losses found in stroke victims or other victims of brain damage
deactivates gene effects; to study effects of brain damage
Transcranial magnetic stimulation
temporarily inactivates brain areas; also can be used to activate brain areas
Explain the switch between SNS and PNS
Activity shifts between SNS and PNS
Both are active but one more strongly so at any one time.
After strong activity in one, rebound to strong activity in the other
Only areas not innervated by both are sweat glands, adrenals, muscles for vasoconstriction & piloerection.
Organizes sensory information that guides movement
Input from vestibular system
Input from extrapyramidal tract that controls skeletal motor control, esp walking
Functions in speed & skill of language acquisition
survival drives, emotion, motivation
regulated emotion, involved in fear and avoidance
problem in cerebellum may cause...
lateral geniculate controls...
part of the frontal lobe that deals with executive functions and decision making
controls fine motor function
Separates frontal and parietal lobes
controls fine touch
Fine touch discrimination (light touch vs deep touch)
Integrated vision and touch information
Sense of your body and space
What happens if there is damage to your right parietal cortex?
you cant see anything on your left...you can tecnnically see it but you don't pay attention to it...you have to learn to pay attention. Its called left neglect
Processes visual information
Deals with visual recognition, descrimination, and detection
Contains primary visual cortex
primary visual cortex also plays a role in ____
short term memory
processes auditory information
information heard in the left ear goes to the (right or left) ____ lobe
left and right temporal lobe, more strongly on the right side
information heard in the right ear goes to the (right or left) ____ lobe
left and right temporal lobe, more strongly on the left side
left temporal lobe
speech comprehension, areas specific to speech (brocas: speech production, wernikies: speech comprehension)
non speech sounds, environmental noises, music, etc.
where is the area that responds to complex face recognition
when damage occurs to parts of the temporal lobe a person can have ____
ingtegration of information into whole perceptions, planning, decision making, higher cognitive functions. Last part of the brain to mature, doesn't mature until early 20's
there is a strong correlation between cognition and sense of smell. Why?
Strong correlation btwn cognition and sense of smell - olfactory bulb is so close to prefrontal cortex
Died at 76
His brain wasn't bigger
But there was a bigger area in the parietal lobe - he was able to make connections with things
brain size and IQ are highly correlated. true or false?
IQ is related with the amount of ____
brain size is related with ____
mens brains are more ____
lateralized - tend to have a stronger left or right side of the brain
What tests are used to study brain anatomy?
CAT scan, MRI, fMRI
which tests are used to record brain activity
what methods are used to inhibit brain structures
gene knockout approach
transcranial magnetic stimulation
the amygdala is _____ in alcoholics and ____ in bipolar and ptsd (smaller or larger)
smaller in alcoholics
bigger in bipolar and ptsd
four F's of the hypothalamus
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