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little ice age
slight shift in overall temperature patterns resulted in a shortened growing seasons and disastrous weather conditions (1315-1317)
the most devastating natural disaster in European History that caused economic, social, political, and cultural upheaval, was diffused through the Mongols from Asia, and was made from bubonic, pneumonic, and septicamic plague strains (1347-1450)
people who flogged each other with whips to win the forgiveness of God whom they felt had sent the plague to punish humans for their sinful ways
Statue of Laborers
moverment by the English Parliment which attempted to limit wages to preplague levels and forbid the mobility of peasants
peasant revolt in northern France that was caused by destruction of normal order by the Black Death and tension from the Hundred Years war (1358)
a bourgeois draper who was leader of the peasants in the peasant revolt in northern France
English Peasants' Revolt
monarchy's attempt to raise revenues by imposing a tax poll or flat charge to each adult member of the population caused this
preacher who led the English Peasants' Revolt and preached "When Adam delved and Eve span, who then was a gentleman?"
Merchants of the Staple
a group of wool exporters who were granted by the English government a monopoly on the wool trade in return for loans
wool workers in Florence who revolted and gained the right to form guilds and be represented in government, but only for a short time
Hundred Years' War
war between France and England which was fought over the territory of Gascony, French intervention in Flanders, and succession to the French throne
weapon used by English peasantry during Hundred Years' War that helped England gain an advantage
the Black Prince
also known as Edward, prince of Wales, who destroyed French towns to devastate the French
Peace of Bretigny
French paid a large ransom for King John, English territoriees in Gascony were enlarged, and Edward renounced his claims to the French throne
Joan of Arc
believing saints commanded her to free France and have to dauphin (heir) crowned as king, she helped France turn the Hundred Years' War around
reign of Edward III
parliment increased in prominence and developed it's basic structure of House of Lords and House of Commons
French parliment composed of clergy (first estate), nobility (second estate), and everyone else (third estate)
French ruler during Hundred Years' War who put a tax on salt (gabelle) and created a hearth tax (taille)
document issued by Charles IV that stated the four lay princes (from Rhine, Saxony, Brandenburg, and Bohemia) and three ecclesiastical rulers (archbishops of Mainz, Trier, and Cologne) will serve as electors with power to elect the German king ("King of the Romans")
podesta/capitano del popolo
literally meaning captain of the people, this person was allowed rule for a limited time in Italy
chief center of opposition to the Holy Roman Empire as well as one of the richest city-states in Italy ruled by the Visconti family
Ordinances of Justice
provided for a republican government controlled by the seven major guilds of the city of Florence
controlled by the Great Council (made up of the Senate and Council of Ten) and the doge (duke), this city state was known for its stability
strongest statement ever made by a pope on the supremacy of the spiritual authority over the temporal authority
event caused by electing two popes at once that resulted in badly damaging Christian faith (1378-1415)
Marsiglio of Padua
author of Defender of the Peace who denied that temporal authority was subject to spiritual autority
Council of Pisa
tried to dispose of Pope Urban VI and Pope Clement VII and elect Pope Alexander V, but Urban and Clement did not step down
Council of Constance
organized by Holy Roman Emperor Sigismund, this meeting ended the Great Schism and appointed a new pope, Pope Martin V
the state in which souls existed after death so they could be purged of punishment from sins
channeled German mysticism into an aspiration of an inwardness of religious feelings
Brothers and Sisters of the Common Life
followers of Groote who took no monastic vows, but abided by semi-monastic laws in communities
William of Occam
asserted all universal concepts were simply names and only individual objects perceived by the senses were real
artist who desired to imitate nature by using perspective and beginning to make things looks more realistic
meaning the art of dying, this is a term for artistic works that concentrated on pain and death
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