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67 terms

AP European History Chapter 12

The Late Middle Ages: Crisis and Disintegration in the Fourteenth Century
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little ice age
slight shift in overall temperature patterns resulted in a shortened growing seasons and disastrous weather conditions (1315-1317)
Black Death
the most devastating natural disaster in European History that caused economic, social, political, and cultural upheaval, was diffused through the Mongols from Asia, and was made from bubonic, pneumonic, and septicamic plague strains (1347-1450)
Giovanni Boccaccio
writer of the book The Decameron which described reactions to the Black Death
flagellants
people who flogged each other with whips to win the forgiveness of God whom they felt had sent the plague to punish humans for their sinful ways
Pope Clement VI
condemned the flagellants and urged public authority to crush them
postplague Europe
demonstrated a morbid preoccupation with death
Henry Knighton
chronicler who observed life after the Black Death
Statue of Laborers
moverment by the English Parliment which attempted to limit wages to preplague levels and forbid the mobility of peasants
Jacquerie
peasant revolt in northern France that was caused by destruction of normal order by the Black Death and tension from the Hundred Years war (1358)
Etienne Marcel
a bourgeois draper who was leader of the peasants in the peasant revolt in northern France
English Peasants' Revolt
monarchy's attempt to raise revenues by imposing a tax poll or flat charge to each adult member of the population caused this
Wat Tyler
peasant who led the English Peasants' Revolt
John Ball
preacher who led the English Peasants' Revolt and preached "When Adam delved and Eve span, who then was a gentleman?"
Merchants of the Staple
a group of wool exporters who were granted by the English government a monopoly on the wool trade in return for loans
ciompi
wool workers in Florence who revolted and gained the right to form guilds and be represented in government, but only for a short time
Hundred Years' War
war between France and England which was fought over the territory of Gascony, French intervention in Flanders, and succession to the French throne
longbow
weapon used by English peasantry during Hundred Years' War that helped England gain an advantage
the Black Prince
also known as Edward, prince of Wales, who destroyed French towns to devastate the French
Peace of Bretigny
French paid a large ransom for King John, English territoriees in Gascony were enlarged, and Edward renounced his claims to the French throne
Joan of Arc
believing saints commanded her to free France and have to dauphin (heir) crowned as king, she helped France turn the Hundred Years' War around
Calais
the only town in France that remained in English possession after the Hundred Years' War
scutage
money payments that were substituted for military services
reign of Edward III
parliment increased in prominence and developed it's basic structure of House of Lords and House of Commons
reign of Richard II
aspired to absolute power, but was killed and replaced
reign of Henry IV
nobles rose to take advantage of the ruler which led to War of the Roses
Estates-General
French parliment composed of clergy (first estate), nobility (second estate), and everyone else (third estate)
Philip VI
French ruler during Hundred Years' War who put a tax on salt (gabelle) and created a hearth tax (taille)
Charles V
recovered French land lost to the English and reestablished strong monarchical powers
Charles VI
dukes of Burgundy and Orleans fought to control the monarchy under his rule
Golden Bull
document issued by Charles IV that stated the four lay princes (from Rhine, Saxony, Brandenburg, and Bohemia) and three ecclesiastical rulers (archbishops of Mainz, Trier, and Cologne) will serve as electors with power to elect the German king ("King of the Romans")
podesta/capitano del popolo
literally meaning captain of the people, this person was allowed rule for a limited time in Italy
signore
lords or despots of Italy
condoterrieri
leaders of mercenary soldiers in Italy
Milan
chief center of opposition to the Holy Roman Empire as well as one of the richest city-states in Italy ruled by the Visconti family
Florence
city-state whose government was controlled by a small merchant oligarchy
grandi
patron class of nobles
popolo grasso
wealthy merchant industrialist class
Ordinances of Justice
provided for a republican government controlled by the seven major guilds of the city of Florence
signoria
council of elected priors
gonfaloniere
standard bearer of justice
popolo minuto
small shopkeepers and artisans
Venice
controlled by the Great Council (made up of the Senate and Council of Ten) and the doge (duke), this city state was known for its stability
Pope Boniface VII
struggle between papacy and secular monarchies began under this pope
Philip IV
king of France who tried to tax French clergy
Unam Sanctum
strongest statement ever made by a pope on the supremacy of the spiritual authority over the temporal authority
Pope Clement V
first pope to move to Avignon which resulted in the Great Schism
pluralism
act of holding more than one position in the church
absenteeism
act of being absent for one's church duties and paying substitutes to perform duties
Pope Gregory XI
first pope to move from Avignon back to Rome
Great Schism
event caused by electing two popes at once that resulted in badly damaging Christian faith (1378-1415)
Marsiglio of Padua
author of Defender of the Peace who denied that temporal authority was subject to spiritual autority
Council of Pisa
tried to dispose of Pope Urban VI and Pope Clement VII and elect Pope Alexander V, but Urban and Clement did not step down
Council of Constance
organized by Holy Roman Emperor Sigismund, this meeting ended the Great Schism and appointed a new pope, Pope Martin V
purgatory
the state in which souls existed after death so they could be purged of punishment from sins
mysticism
immediate experience with oneness with God
Meister Eckhart
preacher who started a mystical movement in western Germany
Johannes Tauler
channeled German mysticism into an aspiration of an inwardness of religious feelings
Gerard Groote
founder of Modern Devotion, a new form of German mysticism
Brothers and Sisters of the Common Life
followers of Groote who took no monastic vows, but abided by semi-monastic laws in communities
William of Occam
asserted all universal concepts were simply names and only individual objects perceived by the senses were real
Dante
writer of Divine Comedy which was a story of the soul's progress to salvation
Petrarch
Europe's greatest lyric poet
Chaucer
author of The Canterbury Tales
Giotto
artist who desired to imitate nature by using perspective and beginning to make things looks more realistic
ars moriendi
meaning the art of dying, this is a term for artistic works that concentrated on pain and death
The Triumph of Death
painting by Traini that shows a morbid concern with death
Thomas Aquinas
believed men were active and domineering while women were passive and submissive according to natural order