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42 terms

APUSH chapter 10

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George Washington
(1st Pres., 1789) job is modeled after him, sets two year precedent
Cabinet
secretary of state, secretary of the treasurer etc., president's advisors
Alexander Hamilton
first secretary of the treasury, instrumental in establishing bank of the US
Thomas Jefferson
First secretary of state
Judiciary Act of 1789
In 1789 Congress passed this Act which created the federal-court system. The act managed to quiet popular apprehensions by establishing in each state a federal district court that operated according to local procedures.
Bill of Rights
1791. The first ten ammendments to the US constitution
1st Amend.
allows freedom of speech, religion, press, assembly etc.
2nd Amend.
(right to bear arms)
5th Amendment
Criminal Proceedings, Due Process, Eminent Domain, cannot be forced to self-incriminate
10th Amendment
(States' Rights), The powers not delegated to the United States federal govt. by the Constitution, nor prohibited by it to the States, are reserved to the States respectively, or to the people.
Hamilton's financial plan
Hamilton's plan to pay of revolutionary war. the federal govt would assume all debts, create a national bank, and impose higher taxes/tariffs
assumption at par
The promise to pay off a debt at the price it was originally worth
customs duties
tariffs, taxing of imported goods in order to protect local businesses and generate revenue
excise taxes
Taxes placed on manufactured products. The excise tax on whiskey helped raise revenue for Hamilton's program.
National Bank
Hamilton's big idea; fiercely opposed by Jefferson and Democratic-Rep. The bank would regulate money and draw investors; loose constructionism
"Elastic Clause"
...
loose construction/strict construction
different ideas about interpretation of constitution. some believed it was to be followed exactly, some believed the constitution could be interpreted widely. Hamilton etc.=loose constructionist. Jefferson=strict constructionist
Whiskey Rebellion
Farmers rose up in protest of excise tax on whiskey. Washington marches huge army against them to get them to back down without a fight, and they do.
political parties
Not anticipated or provided for in the constitution, but form nevertheless. Usually two main political parties
Federalists (Hamiltonians)
Believed in stronger federal govt, loose constructionists
Democratic Republicans (Jeffersonians)
believed in more state's rights, strict constructionists
French Revolution
Political uprising in France, causes govt. to question whether franco-american alliance is still valid
Franco-American Alliance of 1778
formal alliance with French recognizing American independance and agreeing not to negotiate with Britain without consultation
Neutrality Proclomation
a formal announcement given by GW which declared the US neutral in the conflict b/t Fance and Britain
Citizen Genet Affair
A French representative who attempted to contradict the Neutrality Proclamation by organizing armies to attack British and Spanish territories. Washington ejected him from the country when he became too bold in his recruiting, threatened govt. authority
Jay's Treaty with Britain
Generally thought of as unsucessfull, britain promises to leave their outposts in the US (which they were already supposed to have done) and pay for any damage done to American shipping, but makes no promises against future damage to shipping
Pinckney's Treaty with Spain
Allowed US to use port of New Orleans, and to freely navigate the Mississippi
Miami Confederacy
An alliance of eight Indian nations who terrorized Americans and were given firearms by the British
Battle of Fallen Timbers
The U.S. Army defeated the Native Americans under Shawnee Chief Blue Jacket and ended Native American hopes of keeping their land that lay north of the Ohio River
Treaty of Greenville
This treaty between the Americans and the Native Americans. In exchange for some goods, the Indians gave the United States territory in Ohio.
Washington's Farewell Address
Speech at the end of second term in which Washington warned Americans, to avoid foreign entanglements
"Entangling Alliances"
Alliances that would entangle US in european affairs (e.g. war)
Two Term limit precedent
Washington left office after two terms, set unwritten precedent not broken by any president untill roosevelt
John Adams
(2nd Pres.,Federalist, 1797)
12th Amendment
1804, Brought about by the Jefferson/Burr tie, stated that presidential and vice-presidential nominees would run on the same party ticket. Before that time, all of the candidates ran against each other, with the winner becoming president and second-place becoming vice-president.
XYZ Affair
affair in which US officials attempting to negotiate with france were asked a large sum of money in return for a meeting with french officials.
Quasi-War with France
undeclared war fought almost entirely at sea between the United States and France from 1798 to 1800
Convention of 1800
oficially ends franco-American alliance
Alien and Sedition Acts
Extends period of habitation needed for citizenship to 15? years, outlaws speaking against the govt.
Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions
Written anonymously by Jefferson and Madison in response to the Alien and Sedition Acts, they declared that states could nullify federal laws that the states considered unconstitutional.
compact theory
The idea advanced by Rousseau, Locke, and Jefferson, that government is created by voluntary agreement among the people involved and that revolution is justified if government breaks the compact by exceeding its authority.
"nullification"
the idea that states can "nullify", or not comply with federal laws that they find unconstitutional