Which one of the following statements best reflects the idea that multiple layers of a child's environment affect the child's development in one way or another?
a. Typical teaching practices tend to be different at different grade levels; for instance, first-grade teachers tend to engage students in many hands-on practices, whereas high school teachers depend more heavily on short lectures and textbook readings.
b. Even if children inherit very "intelligent" genes, they cannot become bright, well-functioning individuals if they don't also have adequate nutrition to support their neurological development during the prenatal period, infancy, and early childhood.
c. Parents are certainly important in fostering children's cognitive and social development, but they can be more effective in their parenting if they have the advice and support of friends, neighbors, and community agencies.
d. Some parents are warm and nurturing, others are controlling and punitive, and still others are largely uninvolved in their children's upbringing; such differences appear to lead to differences in children's personalities.
Three of the following are definitely examples of scaffolding. Identify the situation in which no scaffolding is described.
a. Ms. Andrews likes to challenge her students by giving them group research projects. She puts her students in groups of three or four students each, and she gives each student a topic to research. She sends the groups to the school library to find out as much as they can about their topic, and then has each group give a report to the entire class.
b. Mr. Bender is teaching a unit on beginning tennis. In the early stages of teaching a correct tennis swing, he uses an automatic ball server that serves balls with consistent speed, height, and direction. He also continually reminds students to "Keep your eye on the ball" and "Hold your arm straight." Later in the unit he begins to serve the balls himself, varying the speed, height, and direction of the serves. And he begins to taper off his reminders about what to do.
c. Ms. Carrera helps students solve math word problems by providing visual illustrations of the elements of the problem and by showing them "models" (i.e., similar problems that have been worked out correctly). As the weeks go by, she provides fewer and fewer visual illustrations and fewer and fewer model problems, until eventually the students can solve the problems without either form of assistance.
d. Mr. Donaldson's students are just beginning to learn how to take notes in class. For the first few weeks Mr. D. begins class by handing out a detailed outline about the topic for the day. By December he is handing out an outline covering only the main points of the day, encouraging students to fill in the blank spaces on the sheet with ideas relative to each point. By May students are writing down main points and relevant details on their own
Answers to the separate parts of the question are as follows:
a. Conservation is the recognition that if nothing is added or taken away, an amount stays the same regardless of alterations in shape or arrangement.
b. The student's response might describe conservation of liquid (e.g., the water-glasses task), conservation of number (e.g., the pennies task), conservation of weight (e.g., the balls-of-clay task), or any other conservation task with which the student is familiar. Responses of preoperational children reflect a lack of conservation (e.g., "One has more"), whereas those of concrete operational children reflect an awareness that amounts are still the same.
c. There are a number of possible responses to this question; following are two examples. (1) In mathematics, conservation of number is essential for an understanding of numbers; children must realize that "4 is 4 is 4," no matter how the four items are arranged. (2) In science, students studying the concept of weight must understand that weight stays the same regardless of physical transformations; for example, gas expands when heated, but it still weighs the same as it did before.
Mr. Davis asks his third graders to conduct experiments to examine the effects of water, sunlight, and type of soil on growing sunflowers. He tells them, "I want you to find out which of these three things—water, sunlight, and soil—affect how well sunflowers grow. Here are lots of sunflower seeds, lots of paper cups to grow them in, and two different types of soil. You can give your growing plants plenty of sunlight by putting them on the shelf by the window, or you can grow them in a shadier place on the bookshelf behind my desk. And here's a measuring cup you can use to measure the amount of water you give them each day."
Mr. Davis is assuming his third graders can do at least two things that, from Piaget's perspective, they probably cannot do. What two crucial abilities necessary for conducting appropriate experiments do his students probably not yet have? Justify your answer in a short paragraph.
3rd EditionC. Nathan DeWall, David G Myers
13th EditionMichael R Solomon
6th EditionSpencer A. Rathus
2nd EditionDavid G Myers