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Pueblo Revolt

goal of Indians was to get rid of the Spanish. They succeed but ultimately need spanish assistance to maintain their societies


re-emphasize traditional beliefs and ways of life

New Mexico

Special missionary colony of the Spanish. The colonial economy was based on small-scale agriculture and sheep raising. Although it was not very prosperous, it ultimatley became a 'frontier of inclusion.'

New France

Area colonized by France in North America during a period extending from the exploration of the Saint Lawrence River. Its creation was necessary to further the french strategy to monopolize the northern fur trade

Samuel de Champlain

agent of the royal monopoly, he helped establish the outpost of Port Royal in an attempt to control fur trade. Eventually, he forged an alliance with the Huron indians who controlled access to the rich fur grounds (in payment: the french made war on the Iroquois.)


frenchman hired to work in the fut trade or fishery. After working however, 9/10 returned to France when their term of service ended.


French river bank farmers living in the tiny colonies of Quebec City and Montreal. By using Indian cultivation techniques, farmers were able to produce subsistence crops, and eventually they develped a modest export economy.


landlords who owned the lands on which habitants farmed

Coureurs de Bois

Independent french traders who were paid agents of the fur companies. Most eventually returned to their home communities but others married Indian women and raised mixed-ancestry families.


French missionaries who attempted to complete conversion into Indian society by learning their language and understand native customs in order to hopefully introduce christianity as a part of the exisiting indian way of life.


French missionaries in seventeenth-century Santa Fe, who insisted that natives must accept European cultural norms as part of their converison.

New Netherlands

Center of Europes economic transformation. On land reclaimed from the sea by an elaborate system of dikes, Dutch farmers used new methods of crop rotation and deep tilling that dramatically increased their yields, producing large surpluses that supported growth. Dutch ultimatley rise up against Spanish to gain political independence.

Dutch West India Company

Dutch company with economic, military and political authority, it controlled the trade routes to and from Europe and North America. Because the route was so treacherous, it's protection against pirates and storms was a draw for many explorers and traders.

Henry Hudson

English sea explorer and navigator in the early 17th century. After several voyages on behalf of English merchants to explore a prospective Northeast Passage to India, Hudson explored the region around modern New York City.

Beaver Wars

Iroquois conducted a series of military expeditions against their northern, western adn southern neighbors. They attacked and dispersed the Hurons, who had long controlled the flow of furs from the Great Lakes to their french allies. This gave the Iroquoi Confederacy complete control of the fur trade.

Royal Charters

issued by the king for the colonization of the mid-Atlantic region (Virginia)

Joint-stock companies

companies that raised capital by selling share (for colonization)

Virginia Company

a group of english investors who supported English colonization


fort on Chesapeake Bay named after the king


daughter of Powhatten who was captured by english in an attempt to end fighting between English and natives

Headright Grants

awards of large plantations to wealthy colonists who agreed to transport workers from England at their own cost

Frontier of Exclusion

English colonists in Virginia pushed natives out, no longer needing them as workers or marriage partners

Powhattan War (1622-32)

assault arranged by Chief Opechancanough that would expel the English for good by causing a cultural revival under the guidance of a native shaman and rejecting English ideals

Royal Colony

colony with civil authorities appointed by the crown, (although property-owning colonies continued to elect representatives to the colonies' House of Burgesses)

House of Burgesses

created in 1619 in an attempt to encourage immigration

Proprietary Colony

colony where one ruling family dictated leadership positions in the community


settled by the Calverts (and named for the kings wife), it was a proprietary colony and had a substantial catholic population.

Indentured Servants

servants who were required to perform labor for a master for a fixed term. For adults it was between 2-7 years, for children it was until they reached the age of 21.


a member of a group of English Protestants who in the 16th and 17th centuries thought that the Protestant Reformation under Elizabeth was incomplete and advocated the simplification and regulation of forms of worship


someone who journeys to foreign land in order to settle there. Many English pilgrims came to the Americas

William Bradford

Led the Mayflower expedition to America backed by the Virginia Company of London.


ship on which 102 people sailed from England to the New World.Mayflower Compact

Mayflower Compact

the first document of self-government in North America


chief of the Pokanokets, who offered the English food and advice in return for an alliance against his enemies upon the English's arrival and initial suffering in America.

Massachusetts Bay Company

a group of wealthy puritans who were granted a royal charter to settle in Massachusetts and form a colony.

John Winthrop

leader and first governor of New England

Thomas Hooker

minister of a congregation at Cambridge who objected to the Masachusetts policy of restricting male suffrage to church members; led his followers west to the Connecticut River and founded the town of Hartford

Roger Williams

a minister at Salem who was banished from Massachusetts for advocating religious tolerance.

Anne Hutchinson

a brilliant but outspoken wife of a puritan merchant who criticized a number of Boston ministers who she thought used their concentration of good works to lead people to believe they could earn their way to heaven

Rhode Island

independent colony established by Williams which guaranteed self government and complete religious liberty.


documents that allowed the native american leaders to relinquish all claim to specified properties. Many tactics such as allowing livestock to grave in native fields were used by colonists to obtain original deeds from the Indians.

The Bay Psalm Book

the first English book ever published in North America.

Salem Witch Trials

Trials of many older women in Salem accused of being witches by young girls in their puritan community. This event showed the darker side of the puritans unwavering belief in God.

Restoration Colonies

one of a number of land grants in North America given by King Charles II of England in the latter half of the 17th century, ostensibly as a reward to his supporters

North Carolina

Moved into by Virginians, the proprieters appointed a governor and created a popular assembly. Eventually, it would grow to include 11,000 small farmers and large tobacco planters.

South Carolina

Encouraged by liberal grants of land in South Carolina, hundreds of Barbadian sugar planters relocated there with their slaves, which lent a distinctly west Indian character to the colony.

Act of Trade and Navigation

In an attempt to claim New York (a Dutch colony),the English barred Dutch vessels from English colonial possessions. This led to an inconclusive naval war between the two nations.

Anglo-Dutch War

war between the two powers initially created by the Act of Trade and Navigation and eventually led to the bankruptcy of the Dutch West India Company and rights of New York going to England.

New York

lucrative Dutch colony which was fought over by the Dutch and English before finally being claimed by the English. The English did little to disturb the existing order, preferring to simply reap the benefits of the profitable colony

New Jersey

initially the communities of Delaware Valley, it was split off as a proprietary colony and continued to be governed by New York.


created for the governance of countries near the mouth of the river formally controlled first by the Swedes and then the Dutch.

William Penn

leader of a group of religious dissenters called the Quakers who were sold the western portion of New Jersey and eventually formed Delaware. Penn's goal was to make NJ a haven for religious tolerance and pacifism.


also called Society of Friends who supported religious tolerance.

Frame of Government

Penn's first formal draft of what he wanted out of New Jersey, in which he included guarantees of religious freedom, civil liberties and elected representation. In addition, he attempted to deal fairly with the native peoples, refusing to permit colonization to begin until settlement rights negotiated and land purchased.

Chief Tammany

made an agreement with William Penn to negotiate and purchase land for the English Quaker colony.

King Philip's War

occurred between the Pokanokets and the pilgrims after pilgrim magistrates arrested and executed three Pokanoket men for the murder of a Christian Indian after months of tension between the two groups.

Bacon's Rebellion

the basic problem of land and labor; colonists wanted Indian land for tobacco. When the governor initially declined to send a militia to the Indian settlements, wealthy back county planter Nathaniel Bacon went on unauthorized raids resulting in the murder of many natives. He was ultimately treated like a hero but died shortly after gaining control of the colonies and order was restored.

Glorious Revolution

relatively nonviolent, it included a bill of rights, issued by the new monarchs at the insistence of the Parliament in which they promised to respect traditional civil liberties, to summon and consult with parliament annually, and to enfore and administer its legislation.

King William's War

War between England and France which enlisted the help of their Indian allies, the French burning frontier settlements in new York, New Hampshire, and Maine and invading the homeland of the Iroquois. The same year, Massachusetts fleet captured and briefly held the strategic French port of Port Royal.

Royal Colonies

colonies controlled by the monarchs.

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