33 terms

Geography: Its Nature and Perspectives

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Absolute Location
defines a point or place on the map using coordinates such as latitude and longitude.
Core and Periphery
Many different regional, cultural, economic, political, and environmental phenomena and human activities display this kind of relationship. ______does not have to be the center of the peripheral region.
Expansion Diffusion
The pattern originates in a central place and then expands outward in all directions to other locations. There are 3 different types: hierarchal, contagious, and stimulus.
Hierarchal Diffusion
The notion that a phenomenon spreads as a result of the social elite, such as political leaders, entertainment leaders, or famous athletes, spreading societal ideas or trends. (Rap Music)
Relocation Diffusion
The pattern begins at a point of origin and then crosses a significant physical barrier, such as an ocean, mountain range, or desert then moves on the other side. Often the journey can influence and modify items being diffused. (immigration)
Contagious Diffusion
The patter begins at a point of origin and then moves outward to nearby locations, especially those on adjoining transportation lines. This could be used to describe a disease but can also describe the movement of other things such as the news in rural regions.
Stimulus Diffusion
Here a general or underlying principle diffuses and then stimulates the creation of new products or ideas.
Geographic Information Systems (GIS)
became pratical with the onset of the desktop computer in the 19702. Incorporate one or more data layers in a computer program capable of spatial analysis and mapping.
Gravity Model
a mathematical model used a many spatial analysis.Used to calculate transportation flow between two points, determine the area of influences of a city businesses and estimate the flow migrants to a particular place.
Topographic Maps
show the contour lines of elevation, as well as the urban and vegetation surface with road, building, river, and other natural landscape features. Highly accurate in terms of location and topography.
Thematic Maps
A broad range of maps. Each one expressed a particular subject and doest not show land forms for other features.
Chloropleth Maps
express the geographic variability of a particular theme using color variations.
Isoline Maps
calculate data values between points across a variable surface...continuous lines joining points of the same value
Dot Density Maps
use dots to express the volume and density of a particular geographic feature.
Flow-line Maps
use lines of varying thickness to show the direction and volume of a particular geographic movement pattern.
Cartograms
use simplified geometries to represent real-world places.
Physiologic Density
the number of people per unit area of arable land, meaning both the land that is farmed and the land that has the potential to be farmed but is not active.
Toponym
a place name. Often reveals the historical interrelatedness of location places.
Relative Location
the regional position or situation of a place relative to the position of other places
Scale
the relationship of an object or place to the earth as a whole.
Map scale
describes the ratio of distance on a map and distance in the real would in absolute terms.
Relative scale
the level at which you group things together for examination; level of aggregation.
Arithmetic Density
the population of a country or region expressed as an average per unit area
Cultural Landscape
the visible imprint of human activity and culture on the landscape
Distance Decay
The diminishing in importance and eventual disappearance of a phenomenon with increasing distance from its origin.
Global Positioning System (GPS)
a system that determines the precise position of something on earth through a series of satellites, tracking stations, and receivers
Mental Map
An internal representation of a portion of Earth's surface based on what an individual knows about a place, containing personal impressions of what is in a place and where places are located.
Place
an area of bounded space of some human importance
Region
A territory that encompasses many places that share similar attributes (may be physical, cultural, or both) in comparison with the attributes of places elsewhere.
Remote Sensing
A method of collecting data or information through the use of instruments that are physically distant from the area or object of study.
Space
the geometric surface of the earth.
small scale map
Larger area
large scale map
smaller area