An applicant for an instrument rating must have at least how much and what type of flight time as pilot?
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-Except when being vectored to the final approach course or directed through an appropriate ATC clearance, pilots must execute the entire IAP commencing at an IAF of associated feeder route and fly the initial segment, the intermediate segment and the final segment or receives vectors to the final approach course can log it.
P-ilot- Illness, medication, stress, alcohol, fatigue, emotion (imsafe), proficiency, currency
A-ircraft- airworthiness, aircraft equipped for flight, proficiency in aircraft, performance capability
EnVironment- weather hazards, type of terrain, airports/ runways to be used, conditions.
External pressures- meetings, people waiting at destination, desire to impress, desire to get there
When is a RAIM check required?Equipped aircraft (non-waas) equipment is used to solely satisfy the RNAV and RNP requirement, GPS RAIM availability must be confirmed for the intended route of flight using current GPS satellite information. If WAAS is available then the pilot/operator need NOT perform the prediction if WAAS coverage is confirmed to be available along the entire route of flight.What are ways a pilot can use to satisfy the predictive RAIM requirement (RAIM check)-Contact FSS to obtain non-precision approach RAIM. briefer will provide RAIM information for a period of 1 hour before to 1 hour after the ETA unless a specific time frame is requested by the pilot - Use service availability prediction tool on the FAA enroute and terminal RAIM prediction tool -Use a third party interface incorporating FAA RAIM prediction data without altering performance values to predict RAIM outages for the aircraft's predicted flight path and times - Use GPS RAIM prediction other page 3What aircraft instrument/equipment are required for IFR operationsG- Generator or alternator of adequate capacity R- Radios (nav, and comm, equipment suitable for the route to be flown) A- Altimeter (sensitive) B- Ball (slip/skid indicator of turn coordinator) C- Clock (sweep second hand or digital presentation) A- Attitude indicator R- Rate of turn (turn coordinator) D- Directional gyro D- DME or RNAV (For flight at FL240 and above if VOR equipment is required for the route)May portable electronic devices be operated on board an aircraft?No person may operate nor may any PIC allow the operation of any portable electronic device - On aircraft operated by an air carrier or commercial operator - On any other aircraft while it is operated under IFR Exceptions are portable voice recorders, hearing aids, heart pace makers etc.Are electronic chart systems approved for use as a replacement for paper reference material in the cockpitYes, can be used during all phases of flight operations in lieu of paper reference material when the information displayed is the functional equivalent and is current, up to date and valid. Recommended to have a secondary back up source of aeronautical info available during flight.How often are GPS databases required to be updated?-The navigation database is updated every 28 days -Obstacle database may be updated every 56 daysCan a GPS with an expired database be used for navigation under IFR?The navigation database contained in the GPS/ FMS must be current if the system is to be used for IFR approaches Some units allow the expired database if the navigation way-points are manually verified by referencing an official current source such as a enroute chart.Can a handheld GPS receiver be used for IFR operations?VFR and hand- held GPS systems are not authorized for IFR navigation, instrument approaches, or as a principal instrument flight reference. They can only act as an aid for situational awarenessWhen must a pilot file an IFR Flight plan?Prior to departure from within or prior to entering controlled airspace: submit flight plan and receive clearance from ATC if weather conditions are below VFR minimums. File 30 minutes prior to departure to preclude delay in receiving departure clearance.When will ATC delete from the system a departure flight plan that has not been activated?Most centers have this parameter set so as to delete these flight plans a minimum of 2 hours after the proposed departure time. If departure time will be delayed 2 hours or more beyond their files departure time are requested to notify ATC of their revised departure timeWhen can you cancel your IFR flight plan?An IFR flight plan may be canceled at any time the flight is operating in VFR conditions outside of class A airspaceWhat are preferred routes?Routes established between busy airports to increase system efficiency and capacity. Listed in the chart supplement.What are En route low-altitude charts?Provide aeronautical info for navigation under IFR conditions below 18,000 feet MSL Revised every 56 days all courses magnetic and distances are nautical milesWhat are En Route high-altitude charts?Designed for navigation at or above 18,000 feet MSL jet route structure revised every 56 daysWhat other useful info can be found in the Chart supplement U.S. which might be helpful in en route planning?Special notes ARTCCS FSS frequencies Routes/way-points GPS Q routes VOR receiver checkpoints and VOTs Aeronautical chart bulletinsFollowing types of NOTAMsD NOTAMS- information that requires wide dissemination via telecommunication, regarding enroute nav aids FDC NOTAMS- flight info that is regulatory in nature including but not limited to changes to IFR charts, procedures and airspace usage POINTER NOTAMS- issued by flight service to highlight another NOTAM MILITARY NOTAM- pertain to US. Air Force army, marine etc, SAA NOTAMs- issued when Special activity airspace will be active outside the published schedule times FICON NOTAMS- field condition provide contaminant measurements for paved runwaysWhat instruments operate from the pitot/static system?The pitot static system operates the altimeter, vertical speed indicator and airspeed indicator All three instruments receive static air pressure for operation with only the ASI receiving both pitot and static pressureHow does an altimeter work?In an altimeter aneroid wafers expand and contract as atmosphere pressure changes and through a shaft and gear linkage, rotate pointers on the dial of the instrumentWhat type of errors is the altimeter subject to?a) Mechanical Errors - Differences between ambient temp and/or pressure can cause an erroneous indication on the altimeter b) Inherent errors - Non-Standard temp and press -Warmer than standard air: air is less dense and the pressure levels are farther apart. True altitude is higher than indicated. -Colder than Standard air: air is denser and the pressure levels are closer together. True altitude is lower than indicated altitude -Extreme cold altimeter errors: Correction factor needed (10C to -50C) -High Pressure to Low Pressure: true altitude of aircraft will be lower than indicated altitude -Low Pressure to High Pressure: true altitude of the aircraft will be higher than indicated altitude. High to Low or Hot to Cold - Look our Below!For IFR flight what is the max allowable error for an altimeter?If the altimeter is off field elevation by more than 75 feet, with the correct pressure set in the kollsman window it is considered to be unreliableTypes of altitudes-Indicated altitude- read directly from the altimeter when set to the current altimeter setting -True altitude- the vertical distance of the aircraft above sea level (MSL). -Absolute altitude- the vertical distance of an aircraft above the terrain, or above ground level (AGL) -Pressure Altitude- indicated altitude with altimeter set to 29.92 Hg pressure altitude is used to compute density altitude, true altitude, true airspeed (TAS) -Density altitude- Pressure altitude corrected for variations from standard temperatureHow does the airspeed indicator operate?The airspeed indicator measures the difference between ram pressure from the pitot head and atmospheric pressure from the static sourceWhat are the different types of aircraft speeds?Indicated airspeed- IAS shown on the dial of the instrument uncorrected for instrument of system errors Calibrated airspeed- is the speed at which the aircraft is moving through the air, which is found by correcting IAS for instrument and position errors/ Equivalent airspeed- EAS is CAS correct for compression of the air inside the pitot tube. EAS is the same as CAS in standard atmosphere at sea level True Airspeed- TAS is CAS corrected for nonstandard pressure and temperature. they are the same in standard conditionsHow does the vertical speed indicator work?The VSI is a rate-of-pressure change instrument that gives an indication of any deviation from a constant pressure level. inside the case is an aneroid both the inside of the aneroid and the inside of the instrument case are vented to the static system. it is vented through a calibrated leak that causes the pressure inside the case to change more slowly than the pressure inside the aneroid the changing pressures inside the case and the aneriod compress and expand the aneroid moving the pointer upward or downward indicating a climb a descent or level flightLimitations of the vertical speed indicatorNot accurate until the aircraft is stabilized it lags 6 seconds behind because of the calibrated leakWhat indications should you expect while using alternate air?Altimeter- will indicate higher than the actual altitude Airspeed- will indicate greater than the actual airspeed Vertical speed- Will show a momentary climb, then stabilize, if in level flightWhat instruments contain gyroscopes?Attitude indicator, heading indicator, and turn coordinatorHow does the vacuum system operate?The vacuum or pressure system spins the gyro by drawing a stream of air against the rotor vanes to spin the rotor at high speeds, essentially the same as a water wheel or turbine operates. The amount of vacuum or pressure required for instrument operation varies by manufacturer and is usually between 4.5 to 5.5 in. Hg. One source of vacuum for the gyros installed in light aircraft is the vane-type engine-driven pump, mounted on the accessory case of the engine.What are two important characteristics of gyroscopes?Rigidity in space- prevents its axis of rotation tilting as the earth rotates, attitude and heading instruments operate on this principle Precession- the characteristics of a gyro that causes an applied force to be felt not at the point of application but 90 degrees from that point in the direction of rotation. Rate instruments such as the turn coordinator use this principleHow does the turn coordinator work?Gyro reacts by trying to move in reaction to the force applied moving the miniature plane in proportion to the rate of turn. The inclinometer in the instrument is a black glass ball in a tube filled with liquid. it measures the relative strength of the force of gravity and the force of inertia cause by a turn.What info does the turn coordinator give?Displays rate of turn, rate of roll, and direction of turn. the ball indicates the quality of the turn Slip- ball on the inside of turn, not enough rate of turn for the amount of bank Skid- ball to the outside of the turn, too much rate of turn for the amount of bankHow does the heading indicator work?Off the rigidity in space principle. the rotor turns in the vertical plane and fixed to the rotor is the compass card. since the rotor remains rigid in space the points on the card hold the same position in space relative to the vertical plane. A the instrument case and the airplane revolve around the vertical axis the card provides clear and accurate heading infoLimitations on the heading indicatorTypically 55 degrees of pitch and 55 degrees of bank. when wither of these limits are exceeded the instrument tumbles or spills and no longer gives correct indication until reset with the caging knob.Heading indicator errorCreep or drift heading, can process 15 degrees of error per every hourHow does the attitude indicator work?The gyro in the attitude indicator is mounted on a horizontal plane and depends upon rigidity in space for its operation. The horizon bar represents the true horizon and is fixed to the gyro; it remains in a horizontal plane as the airplane is pitched or banked about its lateral or longitudinal axis, indicating the attitude of the airplane relative to the true horizon.How does the magnetic compass work?Magnets mounted on the compass card align themselves parallel to the Earth's lines of magnetic force.What limitations does the magnetic compass have?The jewel-and-pivot type mounting gives the float freedom to rotate and tilt up to approximately 18° angle of bank. At steeper bank angles, the compass indications are erratic and unpredictable.What are the compass errors?• Variation (True vs Mag N) • Deviation (due to mag field in plane) • Magnetic Dip Error (Acceleration, North Turn) • Oscillation (from turbulence or rough control) • Northerly Turning (Never See North... Lags) / Southerly Turning (Always See South... Leads) • Acceleration Error (ANDS)- on east or west headings while accelerating the magnetic compass shows a turn to the north and when decelerating it shows a turn to the southAt what rate does atmospheric pressure decrease with an increase in altitude?Atmospheric pressure decreases approximately 1 inch Hg per 1,000 feetLow pressureAir flows inward, upward, and counterclockwiseHigh pressureAir flows outward downward and clockwiseWhat kind of weather can you expect going towards a low pressureRising air which means cloudiness, precipitation and bad weatherWhat weather can you expect going towards a high pressure?Descending air which means dissipation of cloudiness and good weatherDifferent types of frontsCold front: occurs when a mass of cold, dense and stable air advances and a replaces a body of warmer air Occluded front: A frontal occlusion occurs when a fast-moving cold front catches up with a slow-moving warm front. two types: warm front occlusion, cold front occlusion Warm front: boundary area formed when a warm air mass contacts and flows over a colder air mass Stationary front: when the forces of two air masses are relatively equal, influences the weather for days. mixture of both warm and cols frontsWhen a cold front passesExpected weather can include towering cumulus or cumulonimbus, heavy rain with lightning thunder and or hail tornadoes possible with poor vis and winds variable and gusting the temp and pressure drop rapidlyWhen a warm front passesExpected weather includes stratiform clouds, drizzle, low ceilings and poor vis with variable winds and rising tempsWhat is a trough?Elongated area of low atmospheric pressure, area of rising air , cloudiness and precipWhat is a ridge?Elongated area of relatively high atmospheric pressure, descending air, dissipation of cloudinessWhat causes the winds aloft to flow parallel to the isobars?The Coriolis force causes winds aloft to flow parallel to the isobarsWhy do surface winds flow across the isobars at an angle?Surface frictionWhen temp and dew point are close within 5 degrees what type of weather is likely?Visible moisture is likely, in the form of clouds, dew or fogDifference between stable and unstable atmosphereStable atmosphere resists upward or downward displacement. Unstable atmosphere allows upward or downward disturbance to grow into a vertical or convective currentHow do you determine the stability of the atmosphere?When temp decreases uniformly and rapidly as you climb, if there is little change as you go up the air tends to be stable, if the air near the surface is warm and moist suspect instabilityEffects of stable airClouds: Stratiform Turbulence: Smooth Precipitation: Steady Visibility: Fair to poorEffects of unstable airClouds: Cumuliform Turbulence: Rough Precipitation: Showery Visibility: GoodWhat are the main types of icing an aircraft may encounter?Structural, induction system, and instrument icingThree types of structural ice that may occur in flightClear icing: glaze icing, glossy, clear ice formed by the relatively slow freezing large, super cooled water droplets Rime icing: rough milky and opaque ice formed by the instantaneous freezing of small super cooled water droplets after they strike the aircraft (0 to -10 C) lower liquid water content small droplets Mixed icing: mixture of clear and rime ice and forms as an airplane collects both rime and clear ice due to small scale variations in liquid water content.What is necessary for structural icing to occur?Flying through visible water such as rain or cloud droplets, temperature must be at the point where moisture strikes the aircraft at 0 degree C colderWhat are the intensity categories of aircraft structural icing?Trace: rate of accumulation slightly greater than sublimation Light: rate of accumulation may create a problem is prolonged in this environment occasional use of deicing/ anti-icing equipment Moderate: the rate of accumulation is such that even short encounters become potentially hazardous Severe: rate of accumulation is such that deicing/ anti-icing equipment fails to reduce, immediate diversion is necessaryWhat are the factors necessary for a thunderstorm to form and what are the three stages of thunderstorm development?The air must have sufficient water vapor, an unstable lapse rate, and an initial upward boost (lifting) Cumulus: characterized by a strong updraft Mature: precipitation begin to fall from the cloud base that a downdraft has developed and a cell has entered the mature cell Dissipating: downdrafts characterize the dissipating stage and the storms dies rapidlyWhat are "squall line" thunderstorms?A squall line is a non-frontal, narrow band of active thunderstorms. Often it develops ahead of a cold front in moist, unstable air, but it may also develop in unstable air far removed from any front. The line may be too long to easily detour and too wide and severe to penetrate. It often contains severe steady-state thunderstorms and presents the single most intense weather hazard to aircraft. it usually forms rapidly, reaching a maximum intensity during the late afternoon and the first few hours of darkness.Two basic ways that fog may form1. By cooling air to the dew point 2. By adding moisture to the air near the groundThe types of fogRadiation Advection Upslope Precipitation-induced Ice SteamWhat causes radiation fogClear sky, little or no wind, and small temp dew point spread, at night or daybreakWhat is advection fog?Moist air moves over colder ground or water, most common along coastal areas, may occur with winds, clear skies and at any timeWhat is upslope fog?Moist stable air being cooled as it moves up sloping terrainWhat is steam fog?When very cold air moves across relatively warm water enough moisture may evaporate from the water surface to produce saturationHow frontal or precip-induced fog forms?When warm, moist air is lifted over a front, clouds and precip may form, most commonly associated with warm fronts but can occur with other frontsOther than fog what are several other examples of IFR weather producers?Low clouds, (stratus) haze, smoke, blowing obstructions to vision and precipitationWhat is a METAR?The aviation routine weather report (METAR) is the weather observer's interpretation of the weather conditions at a given site and time. It is used by the aviation community and the National Weather Service (NWS) to determine the flying category (VFR. MVFR. or IFR) of the airport, as well as produce the Terminal Aerodrome Forecast (TAF).TAFsScheduled 24 and 30 hour TAFs are issued four times per day at 0000, 0600, 1200, and 1800Z