ANS: A, B, C
Florence Nightingale, in her Notes on Nursing in 1859, outlined basic principles of nursing science. Nightingale's method of nursing included rigorous monitoring of the effectiveness of interventions and treatments. This provided the initial basis for EBP. Her work was based on trial and error, careful observation, discussion with patients, and clinical experience. She used statistical data to improve sanitation, health, nursing education, and health administration. Nightingale applied a statistical approach to the study of public health and mortality data and used a pie chart to display research findings. However, nursing did not publish its first EBP journal, Evidence-Based Nursing, until 1998.