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corticol bone (compact bone)

a dense bone tissue that makes up the outer surface of all bones, as well as the entirety of most small bones of the body

trabecular bone (spongy or cancellous bone )

a porous bone tissue that make up only 20% of our skeleton and is found within the ends of the long bones, inside the spinal vertebrae, inside the flat bone (breastbone, ribs, and most bones of the skull) and inside the bones of the pelvis

bone density

the degree of compactness of bone tissue, reflecting the strength of the bones, peak bone density is the point at which a bone is stronger


the two-step process by which bone tissue is recycles; includes the breakdown of existing bone and the formation of new bones


the process by which the surface of bone is broken down by cells called osteoclasts


cells that erode the surface of bones by secreting enzymes and acids that dig grooves into the bone matrix


cells the prompts formation of new bone matrix by laying down the collagen- containing component of bone that is then mineralized

dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA or DEXA)

currently the most accurate tool for measuring bone density


a comparison of an individual bone density to the average peak bone density of a 30 year old healthy adult of the same sex and race, normal bone density the t-score will be between +1 to -1


the degree to which our bodies can absorb and use any given nutrient


a condition marked by an abnormally high concentration of calcium in the blood


a condition marked by an abnormally low concentration of calcium in the blood

parathyroid hormone

a hormone that helps regulate blood calcium levels


(1,25 dihydroxyvitamin D), the primary active form of vitamin D in the body


vitamin D2, a form of vitamin D found exclusively in plant foods


vitamin D3, a form of vitamin D found in animal foods and the form we synthesize from the sun


vitamin D deficiency disease in children, symptoms include deformities of the skeleton, such as bowel legs and knocked knees


vitamin D deficiency disease in adults, in which bones becomes weak and prone to fractures


the form of vitamin K found in plants


the form of vitamin k produced by bacteria in the large intestines


an organic compound that combines with a inactive enzyme to form an active enzyme


a condition marked by an abnormally high concentration of magnesium in the blood


a condition marked by an abnormally low concentration of magnesium in the blood


a mineral compound in human teeth that contains fluoride, calcium and phosphorus and is more resistant to destruction by acids and bacteria than hydroxyapatite


a condition marked by staining an pitting of the teeth; caused by an abnormally high intake of fluoride


a disease characterized by low bone mass and deterioration of bone tissue. leading to increased bone fragility and fracture risk

female athlete traid

a condition characterized by the coexistence of three disorder in some athletic females: and eating disorder, amenorrhea and osteoporosis


characterized by an ability to slow or stop bone resorption without affection bone formation, anti-resorptive medication are used to reduce the rate of bone loss in people with osteoporosis

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