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corticol bone (compact bone)
a dense bone tissue that makes up the outer surface of all bones, as well as the entirety of most small bones of the body
trabecular bone (spongy or cancellous bone )
a porous bone tissue that make up only 20% of our skeleton and is found within the ends of the long bones, inside the spinal vertebrae, inside the flat bone (breastbone, ribs, and most bones of the skull) and inside the bones of the pelvis
the degree of compactness of bone tissue, reflecting the strength of the bones, peak bone density is the point at which a bone is stronger
the two-step process by which bone tissue is recycles; includes the breakdown of existing bone and the formation of new bones
cells that erode the surface of bones by secreting enzymes and acids that dig grooves into the bone matrix
cells the prompts formation of new bone matrix by laying down the collagen- containing component of bone that is then mineralized
dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA or DEXA)
currently the most accurate tool for measuring bone density
a comparison of an individual bone density to the average peak bone density of a 30 year old healthy adult of the same sex and race, normal bone density the t-score will be between +1 to -1
vitamin D3, a form of vitamin D found in animal foods and the form we synthesize from the sun
vitamin D deficiency disease in children, symptoms include deformities of the skeleton, such as bowel legs and knocked knees
vitamin D deficiency disease in adults, in which bones becomes weak and prone to fractures
a mineral compound in human teeth that contains fluoride, calcium and phosphorus and is more resistant to destruction by acids and bacteria than hydroxyapatite
a condition marked by staining an pitting of the teeth; caused by an abnormally high intake of fluoride
a disease characterized by low bone mass and deterioration of bone tissue. leading to increased bone fragility and fracture risk
female athlete traid
a condition characterized by the coexistence of three disorder in some athletic females: and eating disorder, amenorrhea and osteoporosis
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