How can we help?

You can also find more resources in our Help Center.

28 terms

unit 9

STUDY
PLAY
corticol bone (compact bone)
a dense bone tissue that makes up the outer surface of all bones, as well as the entirety of most small bones of the body
trabecular bone (spongy or cancellous bone )
a porous bone tissue that make up only 20% of our skeleton and is found within the ends of the long bones, inside the spinal vertebrae, inside the flat bone (breastbone, ribs, and most bones of the skull) and inside the bones of the pelvis
bone density
the degree of compactness of bone tissue, reflecting the strength of the bones, peak bone density is the point at which a bone is stronger
remodelling
the two-step process by which bone tissue is recycles; includes the breakdown of existing bone and the formation of new bones
resorption
the process by which the surface of bone is broken down by cells called osteoclasts
osteoclasts
cells that erode the surface of bones by secreting enzymes and acids that dig grooves into the bone matrix
osteoblasts
cells the prompts formation of new bone matrix by laying down the collagen- containing component of bone that is then mineralized
dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA or DEXA)
currently the most accurate tool for measuring bone density
T-score
a comparison of an individual bone density to the average peak bone density of a 30 year old healthy adult of the same sex and race, normal bone density the t-score will be between +1 to -1
bioavailability
the degree to which our bodies can absorb and use any given nutrient
hypercalcemia
a condition marked by an abnormally high concentration of calcium in the blood
hypocalcemia
a condition marked by an abnormally low concentration of calcium in the blood
parathyroid hormone
a hormone that helps regulate blood calcium levels
calcitriol
(1,25 dihydroxyvitamin D), the primary active form of vitamin D in the body
erogcalciferol
vitamin D2, a form of vitamin D found exclusively in plant foods
cholecalciferol
vitamin D3, a form of vitamin D found in animal foods and the form we synthesize from the sun
rickets
vitamin D deficiency disease in children, symptoms include deformities of the skeleton, such as bowel legs and knocked knees
osteomalacia
vitamin D deficiency disease in adults, in which bones becomes weak and prone to fractures
phylloquinone
the form of vitamin K found in plants
menaquinone
the form of vitamin k produced by bacteria in the large intestines
coenzyme
an organic compound that combines with a inactive enzyme to form an active enzyme
hypermagnesemia
a condition marked by an abnormally high concentration of magnesium in the blood
hypomagnesemia
a condition marked by an abnormally low concentration of magnesium in the blood
fluroapatite
a mineral compound in human teeth that contains fluoride, calcium and phosphorus and is more resistant to destruction by acids and bacteria than hydroxyapatite
fluorosis
a condition marked by staining an pitting of the teeth; caused by an abnormally high intake of fluoride
osteoporosis
a disease characterized by low bone mass and deterioration of bone tissue. leading to increased bone fragility and fracture risk
female athlete traid
a condition characterized by the coexistence of three disorder in some athletic females: and eating disorder, amenorrhea and osteoporosis
anti-resorptive
characterized by an ability to slow or stop bone resorption without affection bone formation, anti-resorptive medication are used to reduce the rate of bone loss in people with osteoporosis