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Platt Amendment

This amendment gave the US the right to take over the Island of Cuba if that country entered into a treaty or debt that might place its freedom in danger. This amendment also gave the U.S. the right to put a naval base in Cuba to protect it and the US holdings in the Caribbean. This amendment was resented very much by the Cubans.

Theodore Roosevelt

He was notorious for his impulsiveness and radical behavior. At 5-10 he used his Big-Stick policy in dealing with foreign affairs. He was an instrumental part in building the Panama Canal and enforcing the rigid Roosevelt Corollary. He was Assisstant Commander of the Navy.

Teller Amendment

The act of Congress in 1898 that stated that when the United States had rid Cuba of Spanish misrule, Cuba would be granted its freedom.

Foraker Act

The _____of 1900 set up a Legislative Assembly in Puerto Rico that dealt with their domestic affairs. In 1917, the same act gave the Puerto Ricans United States citizenship.

George Dewey

Commodore of the Pacific fleet of American ships in the Spanish-American War. He attacked the Philippines when war was declared by the US.

Emilio Aguinaldo

He was a revolutionary Filipino who commanded his Filipino troops to help American George Dewey to acquire Manila from Spain. He later led Filipinos against the U.S. in 1899 because of their denied freedom after the war

Alfred Thayer Mahan

American Naval officer and historian. Educated at the US Naval Academy. Mahan served over 40 years in the Navy. He is most famous for his book "The Influence of Sea Power on History" which defined Naval strategy. Mahan stressed the importance of sea power in the world. His philosophies had a major influence on the Navies of many nations.

General Weyler

He was a Spanish General referred to as "Butcher" Weyler. He undertook to crush the Cuban rebellion by herding many civilians into barbed-wire reconcentration camps, where they could not give assistance to the armed insurrectionists. The civilians died in deadly pestholes. "Butcher" was removed in 1897

Dupuy de Lome

He was a Spanish minister in Washington. He wrote a private letter to a friend concerning President McKinley and how he lacked good faith. He was forced to resign when Hearst discovered and published the letter. This publishing helped to spark the Spanish-American War.

Theodore Roosevelt

He was assistant secretary of the navy. He led the Rough Riders up San Juan Hill in Cuba in the land war with Spain. He was known for his extreme expansionism.

Richard Olney

Began as a leading corporate lawyer who noted that the Interstate Commerce Act could be used by the railroads. He became Attorney General and helped to stop the Pullman Strike. He later became the Secretary of State under President Cleveland. He declared to the British that by trying to dominate Venezuela they were violating the Monroe Doctrine. U.S. mediated the Venezuelan boundary dispute.

Yellow Journalism

One of the causes of the Spanish-American War (1898) - this was when newspaper publishers like Hearst and Pulitzer sensationalized news events (like the sinking of the Maine) to anger American public towards Spain.

Joseph Pulitzer

creator of the "New York World;"cut the prices so people could afford it; featured color comics and yellow journalism

William Randolph Hearst

Wrote for, and owned, the New York Journal. He was Pulitzer's rival, and tried to outdo Pulizter in the use of sensational stories and headlines, also known as yellow journalism.

Reverend Josiah Strong

minister who claimed it was our devine mission to spread liberty and christianity to less civilized people. Wrote OUR COUNTRY: ITS POSSIBLE FUTURE AND ITS PRESENT CRISIS

McKinley Tariff

tariff sponsored by William McKinley in 1890 that established the highest import duties on foreign goods, protecting American manufacturers

Leonard Wood

Commanded the Rough Riders. He also fought yellow fever in Cuba by using his authority over the American military government there to improve government, finance, education, agriculture and public health. Later became Governor of Cuba

William James

founder of functionalism; studied how humans use perception to function in our environment; wrote first psychology textbook - The Principles of Psychology

William Jennings Bryan

a young Democratic congressman from Nebraska who believe in "free silver" and was supported by both the Democrats and Populists. He was narrowly defeated by McKinley in the election of 1896. "Cross of Gold Speech"

Walter Reed

Discovered that the mosquito transmitted yellow fever and developed a cure. Yellow fever was the leading cause of death of American troops in the Spanish-American War. US Army Pathologist

William Howard Taft

27th president, former secretary of war to TR & Philipine governor, busted more trusts than TR. Head of Commission. Called the Filipinos "Our Little Brown Brothers"

John Hay

Was the Secretary of State in 1899; dispatched the Open Door Notes to keep the countries that had spheres of influence in China from taking over China and closing the doors on trade between China and the U.S.

Open Door Policy

a policy, proposed by the United States in 1899, under which all nations would have equal opportunities to trade in China


A secret group of Chinese who attacked foreigners in China.

Thomas Platt

politician who successfully schemed to get TR out of NY to Washington by proposing him to be VP candidate

Leon Czolgosz

killed president McKinley in 1901. He was an anarchist, one who believes in the absence of government.

Clayton-Bulwer Treaty

between U.S. and Great Britain agreeing that neither country would try to obtain exclusive rights to canal across Isthmus of Panama; Abrogated by U.S. in 1881

Hay-Pauncefote Treaty

permission granted by Panama for the US to dig a canal ; permitted by the British in order to make friends with US in hope of future support against Germany ; negociated under Roosevelt ; greatly facilitated trade

Philippe Bunau-Varilla

French engineer and Chief Agent who advocated an American canal through Panama and helped instigate a Panamanian rebellion against Colombia.

Panamanian Revolution

TR supported this, the Panamanian rebels are successful and become an independent nation, the US recognizes their independence, we paid them to have a zone there

Hay-Bunau-Varilla Treaty

treaty signed in 1903 between the United States and Panama that allowed the United States to build the Panama Canal; United States leased the 10-mile wide canal zone with a down payment of $10 million and an annual payment of $250,000 for ninety-nine years

George Goethals

United States army officer and engineer who supervised the construction of the Panama Canal (1858-1928)

Venezuelan Crisis

1902 - England, Germany and Italy had blockaded Venezuelan ports because Latin American countries failed to make payments on debts owed to foreign banks. U.S. invoked the Monroe Doctrine and pressured the European powers to back off.

Roosevelt Corollary

Roosevelt's 1904 extension of the Monroe Doctrine, stating that the United States has the right to protect its economic interests in South And Central America by using military force


a region in northeastern China

Treaty of Portsmouth

(1905) ended the Russo-Japanese War (1904-1905). It was signed in Portsmouth, New Hampshire, after negotiations brokered by Theodore Roosevelt (for which he won the Nobel Peace Prize). Japan had dominated the war and received an indemnity, the Liaodong Peninsula in Manchuria, and half of Sakhalin Island, but the treaty was widely condemned in Japan because the public had expected more.

Algeciras Conference

(TR) alliance (germany, austria, and italy),1906- settled the First Moroccan Crisis- started with Germany wanting an international conference on the Moroccan question of who gets what- Germany left with nothing and was further isolated- result of conference was that Britain, France, Russia, and the US began to see Germany as a potential threat that might seek to dominate all Europe- Germany began to see sinister plots to "encircle" Germany and prevent their development as a world power

Gentleman's Agreement

an informal agreement between the United States and the Empire of Japan whereby the U.S. would not impose restriction on Japanese immigration or students, and Japan would not allow further immigration to the U.S.

Great White Fleet

1907-1909 - Roosevelt sent the Navy on a world tour to show the world the U.S. naval power. Also to pressure Japan into the "Gentlemen's Agreement."

Queen Liliuokalani

the Hawaiian queen who was forced out of power by a revolution started by American business interests

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