APUSH 2011 BHS - Test Prep Ch. 8

Midnight appointments
Adams filled as many government positions with federalists as possible. Jefferson refused to recognize appointments.
Assembly line
products are constructed more efficiently by dividing the labor
Clipper ships
American boats, built during the 1840's in Boston, that were sleek and fast but inefficient in carrying a lot of cargo or passengers.
First bank of the United States
Created in 1791 by Alexander Hamilton, the first Secretary of Treasury, this Bank was chartered for 20 years and was to have $10mil, 1/5 of which was to be owned by the federal government. The Bank was created to handle the financial needs and requirements of the central government of the newly formed United States, which had previously been thirteen individual colonies with their own banks, currencies, and financial institutions and policies
Interchangeable parts
Eli Whitney made use of these in manufacturing, discovered while mass producing rifles for the U.S. Army. Prior to this breakthrough, manufacturers built guns/other machines by hand. Soon Whitney's idea was being applied to all aspects of manufacturing.
Lowell System
A worker-enticement program in the Textile industry in New England to mainly attract female workers by offering guaranteed housing in boardinghouses, cash wages, and participation in cultural and social events organized by the mill. Lasted until great waves of Irish immigration in the 1840s/50s made factory labor plentiful. (Named after the town where it first emerged)
Second bank of the United States
This bank was chartered in 1816, much like its predecessor of 1791 but with more capital; it could not forbid state banks from issuing notes, but its size and power enabled it to compel the state banks to issue only sound notes or risk being forced out of business. Jackson saw to it that this bank fail, by withdrawing federal funds and depositing them in state banks. (Jackson was downsizing federal government).
Standard Oil
John D. Rockefeller's company that gained a monopoly over the world petroleum market with the practice of trusts and swift elimination of competition. Started in 1870.
Transatlantic cable
Invented by Cyrus W. Fields; made it possible to send messages across ocean in an minutes.
U.S. Steel Corporation
steel company founded by J. P. Morgan and Elbert H. Gary in 1901
Utopian Communities
Communities set up with perfectionism in mind, Second great awakening, Mormons, Brooke Field
Washington's farewell address
Washington warned future presidents to "steer clear" of permanent alliances with any portion of the foreign world." Called for neutrality, which defined American foreign policy from 1800 - 1890s, then again from WWI to 1941. Composed in part by Alexander Hamilton. "temporary alliances.... for extraordinary purposes."
Washington's neutrality proclamation
George Washington declared to French representative Citizen Edmond Genet that America would remain "friendly and impartial to belligerent powers." Genet inspired many rallies organized by Democratic-Republican societies - later Democratic-Republican party. 1793
Yellow journalism
Journalism pioneered by Joseph Pulitzer and William Randolph Hearst, which had bold, screaming headlines that were designed to sell. Partially provoked the Spanish-American War (1898). Sinking of the Maine.
Atlanta Exposition/Compromise
Define Atlanta Exposition
Battle of New Orleans
General Andrew Jackson led a battle in New Orleans on January 8, 1815; unaware the War of 1812 had officially ended with the signing of the Treaty of Ghent in December, 1814, because word had not yet reached the U.S. Only clear-cut U.S. victory in the war.
Bleeding Kansas
Bloody conflict in Kansas between pro-slavery groups and abolitionist groups. Spurred by the Kansas-Nebraska Act of 1854, both rushed in to set up a government. After President Pierce recognized the pro-slavery government, Pro-slavery forces demolished Abolitionist city of Lawrence. In response, John Brown led a raid on a pro-slavery camp, murdering five. After this, both groups roamed the territory and attacked the opposition. 200 people died.
Boston Massacre
British guards in Boston opened fire on a crowd, killing five Americans. The propaganda campaign that followed suggested that the soldiers had shot into a crowd of innocent bystanders. For the next two years, no war happened, but this event deffinatley influenced colonists' minds.
Boston Tea Party
Group of Sons of Liberty, poorly as Mohawks, boarded a ship and dumped tea into Boston Harbor as a protest against British taxes on tea and against the monopoly granted to the East India Tea Company. December 16, 1773
Boxer Rebellion
Define boxer rebellion
British Burn Washington D.C.
During the War of 1812, due to American forces being ill-prepared for the war, British captured Washington D.C. in 1814 and set the White House on fire.
Chesapeake Affair
1807 - The American ship Chesapeake refused to allow the British on the Leopard to board to look for deserters. In response, the Leopard fired on the Chesapeake. As a result of the incident, the U.S. expelled all British ships from its waters until Britain issued an apology.
Constitutional Convention of 1787
Delegates met to revise the Articles of Confederation, but ultimately decided to write the Constitution as a replacement. The New Jersey plan called for modifications. The Virginia Plan, brainchild of James Madison, called for an entirely new government based on the principle of checks and balances. The final Constitution more closely resembled the Virginia Plan. 3/5 Compromise - each slave counted as 3/5 of a citizen.
Credit Mobilier Scandal
This scandal occurred in the 1870s when a railroad construction company's stockholders used funds that were supposed to be used to build the Union Pacific Railroad for railroad construction for their own personal use. To avoid being convicted, stockholders even used stock to bribe congressional members and the vice president.
Cross of Gold speech
An impassioned address by William Jennings Bryan at the 1896 Deomcratic Convention, in which he attacked the "gold bugs" who insisted that U.S. currency be backed only with gold. "... you shall not crucify mankind upon a cross of gold."
Era of Good Feelings
A name for President Monroe's two terms, a period of strong nationalism, economic growth, and territorial expansion. Since the Federalist party dissolved after the War of 1812, there was only one political party and no partisan conflicts: the Democratic-republicans.
Federalist Papers
A series of essays published in a New York newspaper, written to sway the public opinion in New York in favor of the new constitution. Authored anonymously by James Madison, Alexander Hamilton, and John Jay.