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32 terms

skull, facial bones, and paransal sinuses

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AP Axial (Towne Method)
for cranum (skull series)
CR is 30 degress caudad to OML; or 37 degress caudad to IOML
CR is 2.5" above glabella (through 3/4" superior to level of EAMs)
Criteria-dorsum sellae is seen within the foramen magnum, no rotation evident by symmetric appearance of petrous pyramids
Lateral for cranium (skull series)
CR perpendicular to IR-2" superior to EAM, MSP parallel to IR and IPL perpendicular to IR, IOML parallel to edge of IR
Criteria-no tilt evident by superimposed orbital plates, no rotation evident by superimposed mandibular rami
PA Caldwell for cranium (skull series)
OML perpendicular to IR, MSP perpendicular to IR, CR 15 degress caudad to OML, centered to exit at nasion
Criteria-petrous ridges projected in lower 1/3 of orbits, no rotation evident by equal distance between orbits and lateral skull
PA 0 degree for cranium (skull series)
CR perpendicular to IR, centered to exit at glabella
Criteria-petrous ridges at level of superior orbital margin, no rotation evident by equal distance beween orbits and lateral skull
Submentovertex for cranium (skull series)
IOML parallel to IR, CR angled to be perpendicular to IOML, centered to 3/4" anterior to level of EAMs (midpoint between angles of mandible)
Criteria-no tilt evident by equal distance between mandibular condyles and lateral skull, no rotation evident by MSP parallel to edge of IR
Lateral for facial bones
CR perpendicular to IR, centered to midway between EAM and outer canthus, IOML parallel to IR, IPL perpendicular to IR
Criteria-no tilt evident by superimposed orbital plates, no rotation evident by superimposed mandibular rami
Parietoacanthial (waters) for facial bones
MML is perpendicular to IR puting OML 37 degrees to IR, CR is perpendicular to IR, to exit at acanthion
Criteria-petrous ridges just inferior to floor of maxillary sinuses, no rotation evident by equal distance between orbits and lateral skull
Modified parietoacanthial (modified waters) for facial bones
OML is 55 degrees to the plane of the IR, or LML is perpendicular to IR, CR is perpendicular to IR, to exit at acanthion
Criteria-petrous ridges projected in lower 1/2 of maxillary sinuses, no rotation evident by equal distance between orbits and lateral skull
PA Caldwell aka PA axial for facial bones
OML is perpendicular to IR, CR 15 degrees caudad to OML, centered to exit at nasion
Criteria-petrous ridges projected in lower 1/3 of orbits, no rotation evident by equal distance between orbits and lateral skull
Parietoorbital oblique (Rhese Method) for optic foramina
adjust head so the nose, cheek, and chin are touching the tabletop; adjust the head so the AML is perpendicular to the IR and MSP plane is 53 degrees to the IR, CR is perpendicular to IR, to center of down-side orbit
Submentovertex for zygomatic arches-bilateral
IOML parallel to IR, CR angled as needed to be perpendicular to IOML, centered to midway between zygomatic arches (or 1.5" inferior to mandibular symphasis
Criteria-no roration evident by symmetric arches
Oblique axial projection for zygomatic arches-tangential
start with IOML parallel to the IR, rotate the head approx 15 degrees toward side being examined, tilt the MSP with the chin toward the side of interest about 15 degrees, CR angled if needed to be perpendicular to the IOML, centered to the mid-zygomatic arch
Criteria-no superimposition of arch
AP axial (modified towne) for bilateral zygomatic arches
depress chin to have OML or IOML perpendicular to IR, CR 30 degrees caudad to OML or 37 degrees to IOML, CR 1" superior to glabella to pass through level of mid arches
Lateral for Nasal bones
CR perpendicular to IR, centered to 1/2" inferior to nason
Superoinferior axial (tangential) for nasal bones
rest extended chin on IR, which should be perpendicular to GAL and to CR, CR directed parallel to GAL, centered to nasion
PA for Mandible
OML perpendicular to IR, CR perpendicular to IR to exit at level of lips
Criteria-no rotation evident by symmetic appearance of rami
axiolateral obliques for mandible
extend chin with side of interest against IR, adjust head so IPL is perpendicular to IR, rotate head toward IR as determined by area of interest (10-15 degrees for general survey, 0 degrees for ramus, 30 degrees for body, 45 degrees for mentum), CR 25 degrees cephalic to IPL, centered to down-side mid mandible or 2" below upside angle
AP Axial mandible for Temporomandibular Joints
OML perpendicular to IR, CR 35 degrees caudad to OML (42 degrees to IOML), centered to 2" above glabella to pass through TMJs if they are area of interest
axiolateral oblique (modified Law method) for temporomandibular joints
IOML parallel to top edge of IR, anterior head rotated 15 degrees toward IR with IPL perpendicular to IR, CR 15 degrees caudad, centered to exit through down-side TMJ to eneter 11/2" superior to upside EAM
open and closed mouths and R and L sides done for comparison
axiolateral (Schuller Method) for temporomandibular joints
IOML parallel to IR, true lateral, CR 25 degress caudad, center to exit through downside TMJ-to enter 2" superior and 1/2" anterior to upside EAM
do both closed and open mouth and L and R sides for comparison
Lateral for Paranasal Sinuses
MSP parallel and IPL perpendicular to IR, CR horizontal to midpoint beween EAM and outer canthus
PA Caldwell for paranasal sinuses
tilt head to bring OML 15 degrees from horizontal, CR centered to IR to exit at the nasion
Parietoacanthioal (waters method) for paranasal sinuses
MML perpendicular to IR (OML is 37 degrees to IR) CR horizontal and perpendicular to IR, to exit at acanthion
Optional Open-Mouth Position-mouth open to better visualize sphenoid sinuses
Submentovertex for paranasal sinuses
IOML parallel to plane of IR, CR horizontal and perpendicular to IOML, centered to midpoint between angles of mandible
Criteria-mandibular condyles projected anterior to petrous portion
Cranium-Skull Series
AP Axial (Towne method)
Lateral
PA 0 degrees
PA Caldwell
SMV
Facial Bones
Lateral
Parietoacanthial-Waters
modified parietoacanthial-modified waters
PA Caldwell
Optic Foramina
Parietoorbital oblique-Rhese method
Zygomatic Arches
SMV
Tangential
AP Axial (modified Towne)
Nasal Bones
Lateral
Superoinferior (axial)
Mandible
PA
Axiolateral Oblique
AP Axial
Temporomandibular Joints
Axiolateral Oblique (Law Method)
Axiolateral (Schuller)
Paranasal Sinuses
Lateral
PA Caldwell
Parietoacanthial (Waters)
Submentovertex