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cognitive psych exam 3
Terms in this set (65)
chemicals secreted in one area to affect another area of the body
how do hormones differ from neropeptides?
- they transport via the blood stream
-they can have affects within minutes to days
-large scale effect
different classes of hormones and where they are located
-peptides: in/on the cell membrane
-steroids: within the cell
primary endocrine glands in the brain (CNS)
primary endocrine glands in the throat/ chest area
primary endocrine glands in the abdominal area
primary endocrine glands in reproductive areas
female: ovary, placenta
The ________________________secretes releasing hormones and inhibiting hormones that control the anterior pituitary. Also synthesizes vasopressin and oxytocin, which travel to the posterior pituitary.
The anterior pituitary produces and releases six hormones:
-Growth hormone (GH)
-Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)
-Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH)
-Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH)
-Luteinizing hormone (LH)
These posterior pituitary hormones are produced in the hypothalamus and stored:
Biggest difference between anterior pituitary and posterior pituitary
Anterior produces its hormones and holds them in order to secrete them, posterior is a different tissue type made of neurons that does not create its own hormones. It collects hormones produced in the hypothalamus.
Hierarchical control of hormones
1. Hypothalamus produces neurohormones to stimulate the
2. pituitary gland, which then secretes releasing hormones to influence
3. the target endocrine glands, which then release appropriate hormones into the blood to act on
4. the target organs and tissues, which either stimulates or inhibits the hormone
negative feedback loop
end product of the hormone process comes back to the brain and slows the system down.
-Fat soluble chemical messenger synthesized from cholesterol.
-receptors inside the cell and directly interacts with DNA
ex. gonadal (sex) hormones, thyroid
-chemical messengers synthesized by cellular DNA that acts to affect the target cells physiology.
-receptors in cell membrane and require 2nd messenger to affect cells physiology/ DNA
ex. insulin, growth hormone (GH)
three main functional groups of hormones
1. homeostatic hormones: maintain state of internal metabolic balance and regulation of physiological systems
2. gonadal (sex) hormones: controls reproductive functions; sexual development and behavior
3. glucocorticoids: secreted in times of stress, important in protein and carbohydrate metabolism
effects of hormones can be classified into two types
organizing: those responsible for changing the trajectory of a certain type of tissue (long term process)
activating: in the moment, acute, associated with an abrupt change in behavior (ex. sex hormones)
mechanisms of the circadian rhythms
-The suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN)
- Genes that produce PER (period genes) and TIM (timeless genes) proteins
homeostatic role of hormones
Biological clock driven by light exposure
-light detected by SCN
-sends message to pineal gland to shut off melatonin production
melatonin circadian rhythms
High production at night to induce sleepiness
growth hormone circadian rhythms
High production at night to induce protein production
cortisol circadian rhythms
Low production at night, energizes the body during the day to breakdown proteins and increase blood glucose
Estrogens: estradiol and progesterone
Pituitary hormones: follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), and oxytocin
external in utero development involves
Testosterone; supports male development. No testosterone will result in a female fetus. By week six there will not be any differentiation for the fetus, week seven and eight the testosterone builds the male parts or spreads out into the female parts, week twelve the genital parts of the fetus are fully developed
internal in utero development involves
- SRY gene ( sex determining region Y protein)
-testosterone/ mullerian inhibiting hormone
if those two things are not present....
Female will develop using:
-estradiol (in females)
Males have the _______________ inhibiting hormone to inhibit the duct from forming.
when exposed to testosterone and mullerian inhibiting hormone:
males develop the urethra which leads to the penis and testes. The Wolffian duct becomes the vas deferens (duct that carries sperm from the testicle to the urethra) along with the development of other glands.
For females, if the mullerian inhibiting hormone and testosterone are not present:
mullerian ducts combine to create the uterus and fallopian tubes. The gonads become ovaries and the estradiol becomes present.
Testosterone has ____________ effects during the sensitive period in development.
changes we see in the brain due to exposure with steroid hormones:
-testosterone is a major player because it is being pumped out in the male fetus
-when testosterone crosses into the brain and neurons turn testosterone into estradiol, this leads to changes in the brain by defeminizing it.
why does estradiol not defeminize the female brain?
estradiol is inactivated by binding to alpha fetoprotein, thus, it cannot cross into the brain
For males testosterone is free, it is able to come out and crossover the blood brain barrier into the cells. _______________ is an enzyme that transfers testosterone into estrogen. Then this binds to estrogen receptors inside the cell and changes gene expression, resulting in ______________________.
-typically matches biological identity (cisgender)
-psychological/ societal influences
-biological environment/ prenatal hormones have effect
-intersexes- external genital anatomy is ambiguous
Sex differences in childhood behavior:
-boys play with cars, trains, balls, and roughly
-girls play with dolls, tea sets, and cooperatively
-preferences tend to be consistent over time
-partially due to socialization, but also due to general preferences of each sex
sex differences in childhood behavior- prenatal hormones
-girls born to women with high testosterone levels while pregnant show a slightly elevated preference for typical boy toys
-boys born to women with high phthalate (found in perfumes, food packaging, etc. ) levels while pregnant showed more interest in typical girl toys.
-toy preferences are a result of both prenatal hormones and child rearing experiences
________________ people have ambiguous genitalia
________________ people have an inability for their sex to be identified as a fetus based on external genitalia.
congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH)
-overdevelopment of adrenal glands from birth
-production of cortisol results in an overstimulation of the adrenal gland
-leads to extra testosterone
interests and preferences in CAH girls
-toy preference: intermediate between preferences of non CAH boys and girls
-during adolescence, CAH girls showed interests in between those of typical males and females
-more physical aggression in adulthood
-preference for rough sports
Genetically male but appears female at birth
could be due to:
-androgen insensitivity syndrome (AIS)- insensitivity of tissue to testosterone
-testicular feminization (complete AIS)- pumping of testosterone did nothing to the rest of the body, the testes do not descend but they are still there.
-John Money, psychologist who believed gender is a "nurture" type thing and biology has little or nothing to do with it. Did the twin study where the twin accidentally had penis burnt off and tried to raise him as a girl (went very wrong)
- Current day would have ambiguous children choose their own identity starting with choosing what kind of toys they would like to play with
-occurs in many animal species
-most men discover early on in life (process is slower for women)
-feminine type behaviors during childhood and adolescence correlate strongly with homosexuality in males (vice versa not the same for females)
Genetics of sexual orientation
male homosexuality appears to be predisposed by genetics and prenatal development
-subsequent births of males fetuses
-gender typed behaviors in childhood
-probability highest among monozygotic twins
female homosexuality has less of a connection
-more likely to report attraction to both sexes and switch orientation
-probability also highest among monozygotic twins
homosexuality in younger siblings
younger siblings have higher rates of homosexuality because when the mother has her first male child she develops antibodies to the y chromosome because this is foreign to her. She then passes antibodies off to future fetuses and changes how testosterone interacts with their brains.
sexual orientation and prenatal stress
1. stress releases endorphins which blocks the effects of testosterone on the hypothalamus
2. stress elevates the adrenal hormone, cortisol, which may decrease fetal testosterone release in male fetuses. It may INCREASE testosterone exposure in female fetuses.
sexual orientation ____________ related to adult hormone levels.
homosexual brain development
-activity of the amygdala in homosexual males is more similar to a heterosexual woman than it is to a male
-activity of the amygdala in a homosexual woman is more similar to a heterosexual male than it is to a female
homosexual brain anatomy
- on average, the homosexual brain is shifted towards the opposite sex in at least some ways
-several reported differences have no link to sexuality (may relate to behavior differences)
-homosexual men tend to have larger anterior commissure and suprachiasmatic nucleus (similar to a woman)
-unlike a woman, homosexual men have a slightly larger third interstitial nucleus of the anterior hypothalamus (INAH-3).
hypothalamus is the one region of the brain that is ________________________.
sexually dimorphic; meaning that is is different based on the sex.
testosterone and puberty in males
-addition of muscle
-enlargement of testes
-growth of pubic hair
-occurs 11-14 years old
estradiol/ progesterone and puberty in females
- addition of body fat
- enlargement of breasts
- growth of pubic hair
- onset of menses
- occurs 10-13 years old
estradiol and activating effects
-menstrual cycle; result of the hypothalamic pituitary gonad (HPG) axis
-ovulation seems to be the goal in the female cycle
1. The anterior pituitary gland develops FSH and releases it to send a message to the ovary
2. The ovary starts to develop the follicle (Follicular stage), and as it develops it starts to release estradiol which sends info back to the brain
3. When the brain picks up the signal, it shoots out a burst of LH, causing the ovary to release an egg (the ovum), that has been maturing
4. The leftover corpus luteum (a hormone-secreting structure that develops in an ovary after an ovum has been discharged) thats there will produce estradiol and progesterone in mass amounts for a short period of time, allowing time for the egg to get from the fallopian tubes to the uterus to be fertilized by a sperm
5. if the egg is fertilized by a sperm, it embeds into the uterine wall and starts producing the same hormones to keep menses from happening. If an egg is not fertilized, estradiol and progesterone will stop being produced and the uterine wall will be removed, beginning the menstrual cycle.
sex hormones and libido
1. testosterone in males drives sexual interest but sexual dysfunction is not related to testosterone levels
2. estradiol in females drives sexual interest and is highest at ovulation
sex hormones and activating effects
-elevated following an orgasm, supports bonding formation in partners
-supports uterine contraction in pregnancy
-causes the release of milk post labor
-stimulates milk production
-inhibits testosterone and estradiol production (which is why many women think that they can have sex while breastfeeding and not get pregnant)
Pheromones: Lee boot effect
only in females, estrous cycle stops when surrounded by other females for a long period of time
Pheromones: Whitten effect
only in females, male odor starts the estrous cycle and synchronizes
Pheromones: Vandenbergh effect
young female exposed to nonbiological male develops early puberty (ex. having a step dad in the house)
Pheromones: Bruce effect
termination of pregnancy when exposed to new male odor
Pheromones are detected by _________________ in rodents, which humans ____________ have.
vomeronasal organ (VNO), do not
Mating behavior preferences
1. multiple partners
2. young mates
1. prefer a good one
2. ability to provide
1. healthy, intelligent, honest, physically attractive
2. support their genetic offspring
3. more than one partner for different reasons
monogamy and voles
two types of voles
meadow voles have sexual relations then move on (male), prairie voles remain together and take care of their offspring
the driving behavior for prairie voles could be ____________ in the __________________.
Theory about voles and vasopressin
vasopressin in voles is critical so that there is a pair bonding and oxytocin in humans has the same effect as vasopressin does in moles
hormones influence on parental behaviors
post pregnancy behaviors are hormonally driven
ex. mom is breastfeeding and she would not be able to do this without nine months of priming. An adoptive mother would not be able to produce milk.
Later behavior (e.g. parenting) is not as dependent on hormone levels.
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