67 terms

Language and Intercultural Education


Terms in this set (...)

a process whereby an ind. or group incorporates one or more cultural traits of another group, resulting in a blend of cultural patters, Cultural change and accomodation through acculturation does not necessarily mean loss of the original cultural identity.
the process by which one culture gradually adopt patterns of anothe culture. Leave behind ancestral culture
the capacity to negotiate effectively within two different cultural systems. Being bicultural does not necessarily mean giveing equal time to both cultures in terms of behavior.
a deep, multilayered interplay of language, values, beliefs, and behaviors that pervades every aspect of every person's life, and that is continually undergoing modifications.
Culture is a shared set of attributes of any group, by which this group organizes its living together, its environment and its solutions to the questions of the society.
Values, beliefs, assumptions and the behavior arising from these elements
Values - actions based upon what is perceived as evil, good or neutral
Norms and rules - determine "how to behave"
Societal groups - families, classes, castes, status, elites...

The individual lives in a complex set of relationship with its environment: the individual is hence influenced by the culture surrounding it, as well as influencing it.

National character
Time concepts
Punctuality and scheduling
Space concept
cultural relativism
the idea that one must suspend judgment of other people's practices in order to understand them in their own cultural terms
fluency in at least two language
additive bilingualism
process by which students develop proficiency and fluency in L2 while continuing to wpork on L1. Process involves adding L2 not replacing L1. Instructional programs include Maintenance/late exit/two-way/dual language bilingual ed.
subtractive bilingualism
This form of bilingualism results in a home language that may be delayed or stalled before age-appropriate mastery of new language and negative consequences on self-esteem and relationships with family members.
, lose L1 and identity of culture/home language. risk of using some bilingual programs. any program that instructs in english only., some pull-out ESL.
ability to read and write in two languages.
cultural value
an attitude or an interest that people in a group cherish for its own sake; or perhaps as something need to maintain group itself., Those ideas that are considered important to a society that impact the way people behave and influence what choices they make.
discourse norms
manner of communication based upon culture. rules/roots in culture;s values.
belief in the superiority of one's own ethnic group.
marked language
language singling out one gender ie guys, congressmen. usually associated with lower socioeconomic status or minority groups/
deficit theories
A theory that asserts that the values, language patterns, and behaviors that children from certain racial and ethnic groups bring to school put them at an educational disadvantage.Assimilation, bilingualism (deficit for lang. minority students but asset to wealthy/privileged). Cummins believed is COLLABORATIVE relations of power to EMPOWER students.
stages of acculturation
1) arrival and first impression, 2) culture shock, 3) recovery and optimism, and 4) acculturation. (see question #1 for discussion) Coelho theories.
involuntary/voluntary moniorities. groups' history, present climate, and future expectations. cultural model of behaviors, language as frame of reference for oppositionsl/non-opp behaviors. Trust. Minority students' social adjustment and academic performance are contingent upon cultural and language orientation. Society and community play a role in the failure of many of our minorities.
voluntary minority
(Ogbu) arrived in US voluntarily or descendents of. Manage initial problems, adjust socially and perform well academically. trust. adopt strategies to accultrualte, not threatened by majority.
involuntary minority
resist learning when faced with white Americans, oppositional, schools as oppressors, institutional racism.
Corson - communicative competence (Corson p. 137-139)
linguistic competence: to use and interpret the structural elements of English
sociolinguistic competence: to use language appropriately for any given situation
discourse competence: to detect coherence of separate utterances in meaningful patterns
social competence: empathy and the ability to handle social situations using language
sociocultural competence: familiarity wit the real-world context where English is used
strategic competence: to use verbal and non-verbal strategies to make up for any gaps in English knowledge
transitional bilingual education
a remedial model of bilingual education designed to prepare language minority students to enter mainstream classes
maintenance bilingual education
an enrichment model of bilingual education designed to preserve language skills in the home language while students acquire their second language.
two-way bilingual education
an enrichment model designed to achieve bilingualism in two linguistically diverse groups. Students from the majority and the minority language groups are integrated in one class for all or most of their content instruction.
ESL education
English as Second Language. Most common type of instructional programs provided to LEP students. The instruction is only in English. Two types: Content-based ESL/Sheltered English and Pullout ESL
CAH - Contrastive Analysis Hypothesis
A theory proposed by Lado. Key to learning L2 lies in similarity or difference of L2 with L1. Principle obstacle to 2nd language acquisition is interference of 1st language. 2nd language learning involves overcoming differences between native and target languages. The job of the learning is to overcome differences between native language and target language.
Cummins' threshold hypothesis
if a certain academic and literacy threshold is not reached in the first language, students may experience cognitive and academic difficulties in the second. (Even literacy skills from non-Roman alphabet system can help in learning second language.)
Cummins' interdependence hypothesis
Interdependence of L1 and L2 - Common underlying proficiency: The "common underlying proficiency" (CUP) Many properties are common to all languages. Theory makes possible the transfer of cognitive/academic or literacy-related skills across languages. Transfer is more likely to occur from minority to majority language because of the greater exposure to literacy in the majority language and the strong social pressure to learn it. Since both L1 and L2 share basic principles, then heavy instruction in L1 makes learning L2 easier.
L2 teaching methods
ALM: audiolingual method-popular until mid-1960's, failed to teach long-term proficiency, new material given in dialogue form, students mimic and memorize, structure taught through repetition, little grammatical explanation, vocabulary is limited and learned in context, use of tapes, pronunciation important, little use of mother tongue in instruction, tendency to manipulate and disregard content.
CLT: communicative language teaching-class goals not restricted to linguistic competence, students are engaged in authentic, functional use of language for a purpose, fluency and accuracy are complementary and alternate in importance(both are important, but have different functions, students use the language in unrehearsed settings, authentic situation
TPR: total physical response - students do much listening and acting, commands are important(they get the students to move around and do not require a verbal response), gradually students begin to make verbal responses to questions
Dual Language programs:
Two-way immersion
BICS (Cummins)
basic interpersonal communication skills (social language) - meaning is arrived at through nonverbal cues or written feedback, includes development of literacy for specific situations (shopping, transportation, health services, etc.), non-native pronunciations is not considered to be an issue unless it impedes communication.
CALP (Cummins)
Cognitive-academic language proficiency (academic) - complex network of language and cognitive skills and knowledge required across all content areas for eventual successful academic performance at secondary and university levels. Decontextualized.
Social and academic language is a continuum, not unrelated aspects of proficiency. A good teacher incorporates social and academic language delevelopment into every lesson.
Context-embedded/contect reduced
context embedded: Donaldson formulated the theories of embedded and disembedded cognitive processes from her research. She provides evidence that children are able to manifest higher levels of cognitive performance when the task is presented in an embedded context, or one that makes "human sense".
context reduced: typically academic proficiency describes meaning context-reduced academic tasks because of the lack of face-to-face context-embedded situations found in normal conversations.
aka stablization...plateaus with L2...so accustomed to an error that he does not hear the correct use even though he is relatively fluent
moving back and forth between registers, dialects, or languages
heritage language programs
usually work as an appendix to the regular school program, though sometimes integrated. They are taught by fluent speakers of the immigrant language who are sometimes trained teachers, but often not. They stress community languages and redefine what counts as legitimate school knowledge and practice. Value linguistic capital of minority groups (can be threatening to some). Core issue - making the programs more meaningful (Corson, p. 122)
leadership or dominance, esp. by one country or social group over others. preponderant influence or authority of one group over another.
Describes the advantages that people acquire as part of their life experiences, their peer group contacts, and their family backgrounds. Middle and Upper Class students are advantaged by their upbringings CULTURAL CAPITAL. Parents are well connected, pass on knowledge, provide their children with skills - unfair advantage• Formal education looks after the interests of some more privileged social groups better than it looks after the interest of some other sociocultural groups.
• Culture of the school as the creation of the dominant culture, whose practices are re-invented and perpetuated through education. Thus a social reproduction process exists where some cultural conventions acquire a special status.
cultural and linguistic capital
discrimination based specifically on language.
banking model of education - Concept developed by Freire in Pedagogy of the Oppressed. Concept of "banking" in education is when knowledge is a gift bestowed by those who consider themselves knowledgeable upon those whom they consider to know nothing. A characteristic of the ideology of oppression, projecting an absolute ignorance onto others, negates education and knowledge as a process of inquiry. It attempts to control thinking and action, leads students to adjust to the world, and inhibits their creative power.
the teacher perpetuates the oppression of the learner
o students are objects
o Controls thinking and action
Freire recommends reform - redesigning the relationship of the teacher and the student
o "problem posing" - results in liberation
o students relationships to the wo
o inquiry
education as the practice of freedom
o starts with "where the student is" - place in history and world
o student in control
transforming education
silent classroom
Bourdieu - Students from non-dominant backgrounds are often "silent" within the school setting (fear of offending norms that they sanction) or are forced to withdraw from taking part. Often occurs with students of diversity.
English Only Movement
government policy which directly challenges the development of fairer bilingual education policies in the US.
developed by Jerome Bruner based on Vygotsky. The systematic sequencing of prompted content, materials, tasks, and teacher and peer support to optimize learning
Vygotsky key concept: zone of proximal development. The distance between the child's actual cognitive capacity and the level of potential development.
Acculturation and assimilation theories. Acculturation is more highly adaptive behavior. It is important for teachers to develop sensitivity to diverse cultures.
Stages of acculturation
) Arrival and first impression: During the first few days or weeks, the person may have a feeling of adventure, optimism and even euphoria
2) Culture shock: Feelings of discomfort, dislocation and alienation begin as the person identifies aspects of the new environment that are intimidating or distasteful, at odds with the individual's previous experience, values, and world view. The person may experience emotional fluctuation between feelings of curiosity, adventure, optimism and feelings of sadness, loss, and despair. There may be feelings of grief.
The may feel that the majority culture is a threat to their sense of identity and completeness and may seek support by bonding more closely with members of their own ethnic group
3) Recovery and optimism: Recovery from culture shock brings a renewed sense of optimism and autonomy
. This demonstrates resiliency
4) Acculturation
How can teachers connect with parents of ELLs
Learning at Home
Collaborating with Community
Assessments for ELLs
Ascertain BICS/CALP; language proficiency/cultural issues/schooling issues. know limitations of formal language measures. Informal measures such as storytelling. Monitoring for achievement include alternative and performance-based assess,ents.
language (Atkinson)
language is social. It is a practice, an accomplishemnt, tool. We use language to convey, construct, and perform, our ideas, feelings actions, identities and pass acknowledgements. Language is arbitrary, reciprocal, spoken and nonverbal
- system for communication
language has semanticity - represents ideas, thinks, etc arbitrary, relationship between words and item is arbitrary hence different languages, language is relative
language is contextual, we are able to acquire language efficiently
Language has syntax (grammar of sentence), morphology (grammar of word), semantics (meaning of words), phonology (how sounds are put together), phonetics (sounds), pragmatics(how language is used in social settings.
Grammar (Atkinson)
social tool
the organization of practice, specifically the manner in which language figures in everyday interaction and cognition
Chomsky views grammar as the system of principles, conditions and rules that are elements or properties of all human languages-the essence of human language, Universal Grammar. Universal Grammar is a theory of knowledge, not behavior.
Sociocognitive approach to L2 acquisition. Atkinson has adopted "sociocognitive" to represent that cognitively-oriented and socially-oriented theories are combined to explain language and language acquisition do not occur in a vacuum.
SLA is a socialcognitive phenomenon. According to Atkinson, language and language acquisition is a basic human function. Language is learned in interaction. Language is social and language acquisition is social. As language is internalized, it is always held jointly with the social world. Language effective use in social interaction context. Language is an integral element of sociocognitive activity, the purpose of which is to perform situated action-in-the-world.
Language acquisition does not take place in isolation. Cognition and the social framework act in tandem. The person's adaptation to the environment is a hallmark of the development of mental growth. The melding of what is happening "in the head" to what is happening "in the world" illustrates the importance of cognition in the social context. Motivation. All persons interacting with SLA become teachers. Language and its acquisition are not disconnected for the world. A sociocognitive approach to SLA promotes and reinforces culture, schooling, power, politics, ideology, discourse. This approach validates learners as real people doing something they do naturally. This would support that learning is the constant construction of identities.
Stages of language developmen
Language develops in a regular pattern across language and culture
- innate capability, systematic, acquisition of language
18 - 24 months - syntax emerges (grammar develops), demonstrated by putting words together, average 50 words, puts words together in an order that makes sense
By age 4 - phonology, morphemes developed, knows "words of language", process of language development
Note: Can't suppress language acquisition, but can suppress literacy.
Acquiring Second Language
correlation between arrival and acquisition of knowledge
Age is a variable/other influences:
• Previous education
• Lateralization of brain
• Critical period hypothesis
• Self-conscientious
• Cognitive development
• Learning styles
• Motivation
• Language aptitude
• Personality
3 to 7 years - no difference with native language acquisition
7 to 15 years - gradual drop-off of success
SLA- second set of habits that build on 1st set and enhanced by similarities.
(Krashen) theories of language acquisition.
role of L1 in second language acquisition
Cummins' "threshold hypothesis
minimum levels of competence in language acquisition of the first language of a young bilingual child needed to prevent cognitive disadvantages and to reap the benefits of becoming bilingual to influence cognitive functioning.
"interdependence hypothesis" describes the relationship between the child's first and second language. He theorizes that there are interdependent commonalities of language proficiency in the acquisition of the first and second language.
for the young user of a minority language less language instruction in second language often results in higher second language proficiency scores. However, for the teaching of a second language for majority language users, more instruction is needed in their second language in order to develop proficiency.
English only not good
Lily Wong Filmore
Language minorities and second language learning.The loss of a primary language, particularly when it is the only language spoken by the parents, can be very costly to the children, their families, and to society as a whole. This is subtractive bilingualism - acquisition of English in school results in the erosion of the primary language.
The younger the child, the greater the effect.
Linguistic and ethnic diversity not valued in our countries
Language minority children encounter powerful forces to assimilate (internal and external).
children are aware of their differences. Quickly learn to socialize
• Motivated to stop using primary language prior to mastering English.
• Losing the primary language - affects social, emotional, cognitive, and educational development
Parents are unable to talk with children to share values, beliefs, understandings, or wisdom how to cope with their experiences. Parents cannot teach the meaning of work, personal responsibility, ethics. Causes rifts in family unity, thus having effect on parent-child relationships.
• Breakdown of parental authority and family occurs. Parent view learning English as a means to economic security.
Cognitive and educational consequences - connection between native language loss and the educational difficulties experienced
• Psychological and social factors - fossilization of interlanguages to occur
• Teachers need to be aware of the harm of children not conversing with parents in native language. Parents need to be warned of the consequences. When the home language is displaced by English this is a negative change, especially when parents speak little or no English. Increasing the usage of the native language in the home is a positive change.
"Teachers Need to Know about Language"
"Teacher as Communicator"
need to understand the discourse patterns of communication are culturally based, patterns of discourse are not universal
Teach speech patterns that are used in the schoolhouse, but not at the expense of negating the native language. Engage students in learning activities from many different cultures and backgrounds.
rich knowledge in linguistics
"Teacher as Educator"
Understand and apply language development and linguistics
assess student performance, select appropriate textbooks, and materials to meet the needs of the students.
to support student learning across the curriculum and establish a nurturing, classroom language environment
Teacher as evaluator"
appropriately grouping the students
evaluate students
understand variations in language use. Understand the dynamics of different types of instructional groupings
skill building curriculum, like reading, may be grouped homogeneously to target specific skills.
"Teacher as educated human being"
Understanding how language works
grasp the implications of language acquisition and dialect use, then respond with appropriate teaching methodology
"Teachers act as an "agent of socialization"
home teachings by guiding the student to develop acceptable thinking and acquire social norms in the schoolhouse.
develop proficiency in their native language. This serves as a foundation for literacy.

Fillmore and Snow pose two questions that educators should be able to answer that relate to oral and written language.
"What are the basic units of language?" opens a discussion about how language works
"What is regular, and what isn't? How do forms related to each other? and How is the lexicon (vocabulary) acquired and structured?", direct the teacher's focus to vocabulary development and the teaching of vocabulary
Cummins' Prism Model
Interdependence of Social and Cultural processes with Language, academic, and Cognitive development.
Sociocultural process:
• a sociocultural environment promotes self-esteem and reduces anxiety.
• Instructional environment can create distance between groups
• Prejudice and discrimination can influence learning
• Acculturation vs. assimilation
• Acquisition of the oral and written systems of the student's first and second languages.
1. phonology
2. vocabulary
3. morphology
4. syntax
5. semantics
6. pragmatics
7. paralinguistic
8. discourse
Academic development
• Includes all schoolwork in language arts, math sciences, social studies K through 12
• Academic knowledge and conceptual development transfer from first to second language
• It is most efficient to develop academic work through student's first language while teaching the second language during other periods of the school day.
• Cognitive development
- Children who reach full cognitive development in two languages by about 11/12 years old have advantages over monolinguals.
- Until recently, cognitive development was neglected by second-language teachers. In the '80's and '90's academic content was added to language lessons.
Common Underlying Proficiency (CUP)
makes possible the transfer of cognitive/academic or literacy-related skills across languages.Bilingual proficiency is represented as a "dual iceberg"
The common underlying proficiency principle implies that experience with either language can promote development of the proficiency underlying both languages given motivation and exposure to both.
medium of L1 transfer or become available to L2 given sufficient exposure and motivation.
Hence, it is important for the teacher not to recommend speaking in English in the home.
Cummins' Iceberg Metaphor
He used the metaphor to note the differences between the visible, quantifiable, formal aspects of language (pronunciation, grammar, basic vocabulary) and the less visible and less easily measured aspects dealing with semantic and functional meaning (pragmatic aspects of proficiency). He pointed out that most language teaching attempted to develop functional or communicative proficiency by focusing on the surface forms despite the fact that the direction of language acquisition was from deeper communicative functions of language to the surface forms.
In terms of Bloom's taxonomy:
Surface level
Cognitive/academic processing
the distinction of the BICS/CALP are that some neglected aspects of language proficiency are considerable more relevant for students' cognitive and academic progress than are the surface manifestations of proficiency frequently focused on by educators. Often educators fail to appreciate these differences can have particularly unfortunate consequences for language minority students.
Embedded/disembedded cognitive processes (Donaldson in Cummins' Iceberg)
Normal productive speech is embedded within a context of immediate goals, intentions, and familiar patterns of events. Thinking and language that move beyond the bounds of meaningful interpersonal context make entirely different demands on the individual, in that it is necessary to focus on the linguistic forms themselves for meaning rather than on intentions.
Donaldson cautions that ones' adeptness in producing language that is meaningful and appropriate in interpersonal contexts can give a misleading impression of overall language proficiency.
The purpose of schooling is to become familiar with and be able to manipulate context-embedded knowledge.
Corson (nonstandard language)
Most speakers of a language use a variety that differs in recognizable ways from the standard variety and none of these varieties is inherently inferior to the standard variety in the use of grammar, accent or phonology.
Varieties serve as valuable group identity functions for their speaker, which are linked to self-respect and self-worth. Because of the psychological attributes of language, it is incumbent to respect and recognize varieties in education.
. Discussions of linguistic stereotyping, the need for greater critical literacy among students, language awareness by teachers and students
Typically, education policy does not address non-standard language issues.
creates differences in language between home and school. The prejudice
Historically, schools have given their attention to "improving" the language of their students, which gives tacit approval to the legitimizing of setting standard norms of language.
difficult prejudices for education to overcome. The standard variety of language becomes the model of excellence against which all varieties are measured.

Learn to appreciate non-standard varieties
Extend the range of students' skills
it is appropriate to use different forms of language
o different rules of interaction between the students' community environment and in the more formal environment where the standard variety is used.
o Learn as much as possible about the students' cultural and linguistic traditions.
Avoid testing procedures that favor the standard variety,

Academic literacy is enhanced when it is viewed through a critical lens to encompass real-world connections that are more engaging to the students. Literacy relevance connects
Corson- Social justice
Corson defines social justice as having to do with ideas about legitimacy, fairness, impartiality, welfare, mutual advantage and political and social consensus. Using this definition, he believes that schools need to put into practice policies that take into account that philosophy.
show full respect for their language variety and the culture that is associated with it.
Corson discusses non-standard varieties of languages. He argues that while non-standard varieties should be valued and recognized in the classroom (and the world at large), Standard English MUST be used as the school's vehicle of instruction. Once again, Corson posits that teachers are crucial in the delivery of standard language, BUT he does say that teachers are merely a product of their own education and cannot be blamed for their initial prejudices. Because of this, he feels that professional development to promote greater teacher awareness of language diversity is essential. There are three goals of teacher in-service, according to Corson, 1) changes in teachers' behavior, 2) enhancement of student learning, and 3) changes in teachers' attitudes and beliefs. The key goal is changing teachers' behavior. Corson also says that schools need to be more aware of their assessment policies and offer alternative assessments for ELL students.
Delpit- teaching against linguistic prejudice
Delpit mentions the fact that there is an affective filter in learning a second language. That filter is affected by comfort level, motivation, and familiarity. If a student does not feel comfortable, they will not be able to affectively learn the second language.
Cummins Social Justice
Cummins believes that changes must be made to the American educational system to empower minority (ELL) students. He argues that the current system is failing those students. The only way to empower those students, according to Cummins, is for teachers to become advocates for the promotion of students' linguistic talents, actively encourage community participation in developing students' academic and cultural resources, and implement pedagogical approaches that attempt to liberate students from instructional dependence.
Each of the features is interconnected and influence each other. Every change in a single feature can cause changes in the others.
Language is the dominant sign of culture. Language is a dynamic entity that evolves and changes over time
Non-verbal communication
, A system of communication through the use of speech, a collection of sounds understood by a group of people to have the same meaning.
San Antonio Independent School District v. Rodriguez (filed in 1971 in Texas, Supreme Court Decision 1973)
90% of the students were Mexican-Americans. The students were concerned about the lack of supplies and qualified teachers
"Texas method of school financing violated the equal protection clause of the 14th amendment." The lawsuit alleged that education was a fundamental right and that wealth-based discrimination was a constitutionally suspect class.
Does the Texas system's reliance on local property taxation favor the more affluent and violate equal protection requirements because of substantial inter-district disparities in per-pupil spending in education resulting from differences in the value of assessable property among the districts?
Is education a fundamental right and is wealth-based discrimination a constitutionally "suspect" class?

On March 21, 1973, the Supreme Court ruled five to four against Rodriguez, stating that the system of school finance did not violate the federal constitution and that the issue should be resolved to subsidize poorer school districts.
Impact of the Court Decision
This ruling in effect produced additional legal barriers to equalization.
A financing reform bill was passed, which included:
• Merging a district's tax base with a poorer district
• Sending money to the state to help pay for students in poorer districts
• Contracting to educate students in other districts
• Consolidating voluntarily with one or more other districts
• Transferring some of its commercial taxable property to another tax district's tax rolls.
Plyler v. Doe, (1982)
Facts of the Case:
In 1975 Texas revised its education laws to withhold funds from local school districts for the education of children who were not legally admitted to the U.S. and to deny enrollment to those same children.
The question presented by these cases is whether, consistent with the Equal Protection Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment, Texas may deny to undocumented school-age children the free public education that it provides to children who are citizens of the United States or legally admitted aliens.
A Texas statute, which withholds funds for the education of children of illegal immigrants and denies enrollment of those children, violates the Equal protection Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment.
If the State is to deny a discrete group of innocent children the free public education that it offers to other children residing within its borders, that denial must be justified by a showing that it furthers some substantial state interest. No such showing was made here.
Public schools cannot deny educational rights to immigrant children based on immigration status.
Castañeda v. Pickard (1981)
Castañeda v. Pickard (1981)
Facts of the Case:
The case of Castañeda v. Pickard was held in the United States Court of Appeals, Fifth Circuit, in 1978, on appeal from the United States District Court for the Southern District of Texas. This case was filed against the Raymondville Independent School District (RISD) in Texas by Roy Castañeda, the father of two Mexican-American children. The defendents were the Secretary of the Department of Health, Education and Welfare and the Texas Education Agency. According to the plaintiffs, the district engaged in policies and practices of racial discrimination against Mexican-Americans which deprived them of rights secured by the fourteenth amendment, Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, and the Equal Educational Opportunities Act of 1974. Classrooms were segregated using a grouping system based on racially and ethnically discriminatory criteria. Consequently, it could result in inadequate separation.

Raymondville is a small, poor district with a majority of Mexican-American students. In grades K-3, instruction through bilingual education (in response to Lau) was designed to teach reading and writing in English as well as the content areas through use of Spanish. Bilingual support is not available in upper elementary grades and beyond, except through the use of a classroom aide. There was no way to evaluate the adequacy of the school's approach.
1. Is the ability grouping system used for classroom assignments was based on racially and ethnically discriminatory criteria and resulted in segregation (14th Amendment)?
2. Are hiring and promotional practices discriminatory, denying children of equal educational opportunity (EEOA)?
3. Is the bilingual education program adequate (Title VI) to overcome barriers to equalize participation in educational opportunities (EEOA)?

1. The Fifth Circuit Court of Appeals ruled in favor of the plaintiffs, based on the system having a history of unlawful segregation. The ability grouping was based on racially and ethnically discriminatory criteria and resulted in segregation (14th Amendment).
• School systems can use ability grouping, even when such a policy has a segregative effect, so long as such a practice is genuinely motivated by educational concerns and not discriminatory motives. However ability grouping may perpetuate the effects of past discrimination by resegregating, on the basis of ability, students who were previously segregated in inferior schools on the basis of race or national origin.
• Language grouping is allowed, even in a district with a past history of discrimination. However, a practice which actually groups children on the basis of their language ability and then identifies these groups with a general ability label, is highly suspect and has the effect of perpetuating the stigma of inferiority originally imposed by past practices of discrimination. The RISD's ability grouping practices confuse measures of two different characteristics, i. e., language and intelligence, with the result that predominantly Spanish speaking children are inaccurately labeled as "low ability," which may be evidence of a discriminatory intent to stigmatize these children as inferior on the basis of their ethnic background.
2. The court ruled that they were discriminated against based on hiring practices (but not promotional practices).
• The Equal Protection Clause requires not only that students shall not themselves be discriminated against on the basis of race by assignment to a particular school or classroom, but that they shall not be deprived of an equal educational opportunity by being forced to receive instruction from a faculty and administration composed of persons selected on the basis of unlawful racial or ethnic criteria. In a case involving a school district with a history of discrimination, the defendant has not provided clear and convincing evidence that the challenged employment decisions were motivated by legitimate nondiscriminatory reasons.
3. The Supreme Court affirmed the district court's conclusion that RISD's bilingual education program does not violate Title VI. However the effectiveness of that program is in question. The Court identified a three-prong test to determine whether a school district is serving its LEP students.

The Court remanded these issues for further proceedings.
• The district court is to determine whether, in the past, the district discriminated against Mexican-Americans, and then to consider whether the effects of any such past discrimination have been fully erased. The answers to these questions should illuminate the proper framework for assessment of the merits of the plaintiffs' claims that the ability grouping and employment practices of RISD are tainted by unlawful discrimination.
• The question of the legality of the district's language remediation is distinct from the ability grouping and teacher discrimination issues. Because an effective language remediation program is essential to the education of many students in Raymondville, the district court should conduct a hearing to identify the precise causes of the language deficiencies affecting some of the RISD teachers and to establish a time table for the parties to follow in devising and implementing a program to alleviate these deficiencies. The district court should also assure that RISD takes whatever steps are necessary to acquire validated Spanish language achievement tests for administration to students in the bilingual program at an appropriate time during the 1981-82 academic year.

Impact of the Court Decision
The Castañeda vs. Pickard case established three criteria for a program that serves LEP students. These measures determine whether a school district is serving the LEP students and if the program addresses the needs of these students. The principles are as follows:
1. Theory: it must be based on "a sound educational theory" or, at a minimum, a legitimate experimental program design.
2. Practice: it must be "implemented effectively," with adequate resources and personnel to transfer theory to practice.
3. Results: after a trial period, it must be evaluated as effective in overcoming language handicaps. The school must stop programs that fail to produce results.

Castaneda has a special relevance, since it provided -- and still provides -- important criteria for determining a school's degree of compliance with the Equal Educational Opportunity Act of 1974. The current OCR policy permits school districts to use any method, or program, that has proven successful or that promises to be successful. OCR's approach for evaluating the adequacy of a district's program for language-minority students under Title VI closely parallels the three-part test formulated in Castaneda v. Pickard to judge an education agency's compliance with the EEOA.
Dahl- cultural differences
Culture is a shared set of attributes of any group, by which this group organizes its living together, its environment and its solutions to the questions of the society.
Values, beliefs, assumptions and the behavior arising from these elements
Values - actions based upon what is perceived as evil, good or neutral
Norms and rules - determine "how to behave"
Societal groups - families, classes, castes, status, elites...

The individual lives in a complex set of relationship with its environment: the individual is hence influenced by the culture surrounding it, as well as influencing it.

National character
Time concepts
Punctuality and scheduling
Space concept