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History 52 Final
Terms in this set (139)
Wanted to keep Texas from leaving. Leader is a dictator. War lasts 1.5 years
Mexican Pre-War Status
Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo. Had rights like a man, can sue, etc
Mexican Post-War Status
Became femme coverts, lose legal status, own pre-marital contracts
Effects of Mexican-American War
White Americans scheme to steal the real estate from wealthy mexicans. 85% lost property
Maria A. Ruiz De Burton "Enemy Lovers"
came from a CA wealthy family and falls in love with Henry S. Burton, an enemy captain. He was called for duty so they moved to Washington with their daughters. Is only left with pension.
The Squatter and the Don, 1885
Maria A. Ruiz Returns to CA to find out her family lost their generational ranch, goes to court, and loses 2x. dies before she loses appeal. Wrote "Emancipate the White Slaves of California" to talk about how they've been swindled.
Native Americans Contact and Assimilation
In an effort to end the wars, the U.S government adopts that if they were assimilated, people wouldn't be afraid to live by them
Dawes Severalty Act, 1887
"Kill the Indians to save the man." Divided 160 acres of land. The U.S confiscated and sold profits used for farms, courts, hospitals, etc. Kids had to go to boarding schools hundreds of miles away and were forced into christianity for 5-8 years, Destroyed families. Was overturned in 1930
Chief Iron Eyes
He supported assimilation and was the last of the chiefs. His name is Joseph. He learned to read and write in English. Sent his daughter to Medical Woman College, which quakers supported
Was a physician who kept office hours and did house calls on horse back. Stated that tribes needed to be educated on cleanliness. Was also an intermediary between whites and Native Americans. Advocated for balance.
Homestead Act, 1862
If you were able to clear 40 acres of land within 5 years, you get to keep it.
Delilah Fowler, Kansas- 1869
Travels with son by wagon, leaving everything behind. Husband was killed in a shoot out when their son was 11. Had plans to leave and son won money in a circus footrace. Comes back paid and chances mind to stay, meeting the requirements
It was a woman's only option since men outnumbered women in mining towns.
It was the lowest option. Not supposed to be prostitutes, but was hired to bring men to drink and gamble. Wasn't a full service and was less dangerous
It was a full service in 1 shack rooms. Only a bed fit and was locked from the outside. Chinese prostitutes mostly worked in this due to fathers being peasant farmers. Get paid $0.25
Was owned by madams in small houses. On average, 5-6 people
Youngest most exotic, fancy clothes, and perfumes. Had the best protection and healthcare.
Prostitution Legal Status
Police mostly ignore it. If convicted of stealing a horse, was a capital offense. Killing a prostitute wasn't.
Kitty LeRoy-Bell of Dallas
Was a dance hall girl at 11. At 16, was manning blackjack table with hidden gun to be able to shut down table, and was caught stacking the decks. Became a prostitute, and killed first 3 husbands. She baits husband #4 to show off shooting skills on purpose and was killed, then he kills himself
Worked and opened Virginia Parlor House. Everyone loved her and was found strangled. John Million confessed and was hanged. She was buried out of town. Mark Twain wrote about the hypocrisy that allows a murderer to be buried in town and not a prostitute.
Ah Choi- Chinese Sex Slave
Was sold by her own father, and worked in cribs. Charged $16/man. Invests in an independent business, goes back to China and wasn't accepted. Came back to San Francisco and built a mansion.
Red Light District- Denver Law
To clean things up, prostitutes had to wear a yellow armband law. To protest, prostitutes wore yellow every Saturday. Law was overturned.
Red Light District- San Francisco Law
STD's are very high and syphilis is the most popular. Free healthcare for prostitutes. Healthy=license, Unhealthy=treatment. Rates dropped but legislators overturned this.
Paid Female Work- Domestic
was #1 and was mostly blacks, Becomes lowest paying jobs
Paid Female Work- Garment Industry
poor white women making clothes in sweatshops. No ventilation and was pressured to work fast.
Paid Female Work-Sewing Machines
Women could work at home. It was portable but women had to bring their own supplies. Employer would rent out floor.
Was mostly middle class white woman. Believed women were better at typing because of small thin fingers, and were cheaper to hire.
Men were paid more, but women were cheaper to hire
Knights of Labor 1869
Were more inclusive and open to minorities. Were seen as radical and the goal was to work at least 8 hours a day
Samuel Gompers- American Federation of Labor (AFL)
A member who thought the Knights of Labor were to radical, and starts a new regressive group
Father abandons unskilled mother. Mother never recovered from this and moves place to place. Mom gave her no affection to toughen her up to protect her. Went to a boarding room for 17 days. Wrote "Uncle Tom's Cabin" about the fugitive slave laws, and characters were slaves that ran away.
Charlotte Perkins-Self Sufficiency for Women
Wasn't emotionally prepared due to lack of affections. Marries Walter Stinson and has a child, but has postpartum depression. Goes to SoCal and returns. Divorces him and sends daughter to him. Rents room for 17 days and creates the Parasite/Host relationship.
Charlotte Perkins said instead of women being in a symbolic relationship, they were in a parasite/host Relationship. Women were the parasites because they had no choice. Taught to focus on men.
Solution to Parasite/Host Relationship
Charlotte Perkins said to have only 2-3 kids, get rid of the room that causes most work (kitchen) and replace them with communal dining halls. Provide childcare center with trained individuals. Let men and women meet by choice. Goes through 7 edition books in different languages.
Morril Act, 1862
It provided grant money if territory is used to build college, and supplies used.
Co-Education (Morril Act)
Lawsuits began for co-education. It put pressure on Ivy Leagues to follow, and it did after midwest. In 1900 it was 40% girls who were mostly white and rich.
Opportunity and Coursework
The coursework was very limited and only had domestic skills and literature
Frances E. Willard
Was a tomboy who was forced to wear dresses. Was angry when she found out she couldn't vote.
Frances E. Willard- Evanston College
was a female university teacher and was chosen to be dean.
Frances Willard- Academic Courses
Thought the classes were useless and said to use the same tactics as NorthWestern. Creates more courses. School wrote a new rule book without her input that women can be unchaperoned in town and accompany men late at night. Tries to appeal this and loses, later resigns.
Women's Christian Temperance Union (Francis Willard)
Francis thinks this is a worthy cause and then becomes leader in 1878-1898.
Women's Christian Temperance Union Reforms
1. Temperance-alcohol regulation associated with violence. 2. Child Labor- they should be in school. 3-Prison Reform- not a lot of oversight. 4. Health and Welfare- inner city slums needed regulation. 5-Prostitution-help them off the streets 6. Integration-Again Jim Crow's Laws 7. Suffrage-Right for women to vote
Jane Addams-Chicago 1889
was sent to college by dad to find a guy. Goes to slums to change her perspective. Gets degree in social work, and decides to move into inner city to help with poverty. Refurbishes house for social workers and tried to use art to inspire others but failed.
Jane Addams-Hull House
Discovered health issues and malnutrition. The clinic gave health classes, hot meals, and daycares. Discovered kids were given lottoman to make them sleepy, and were addicted to opium. Started very first kindergarten.
Lillian Ward-New York, 1895
Helped build the medical center but was frustrated with role and goes back to New York to open up a settlement house. Made housecalls cause apartment was too small. Jacob Schiff gives them money to open settlement house and expand programs.
National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, 1909
W.E. DuBois wanted meeting hall to hold conferences to battle Jim Crow laws. Lillian allowed him to hold conferences and even Ida B.Wells attends.
Gibson Girl, 1900
created by Andrew Gibson who used to sell products. Dress very long, low cut corset, hourglass shape, neck still covered, hair bun, gloves
20th Century Technology
New invention of canned goods, electric washing machine, telephone, 4,000 automobiles,
New Woman Feminism
binding breasts, short dress, short hair, hose above knee or below. Beginning of Flapper Era
Poor Irish immigrant family. Mom had 19 kids, but only 14 survived. Mom dies. Becomes surrogate mother
Margaret Sanger-Sadie Sachs 1912
Her and her husband Edward sign up to I.W.W. She becomes an obstetrician who finds Sadie in a pool of blood due to a self abortion. Was able to save her, but her body wouldn't handle another pregnancy. Dies again after 2nd abortion.
Comstock Law, 1870s (Margaret Sanger)
Anti-Obscenity Clause- Can't talk about anything contraception, abortion, or female anatomy. Publishes "Ways to Evade Nature's Law" and gets arrested. IWW bails her out and skips town to England. "Birth Control" Sends out samples of Pessury Caps but husband arrested for still publishing. Does speaking tours saying if you dont want poor people to have kids, advocate birth control, and convicted for a few months. Eventually becomes Planned Parenthood.
Jeanette Pankin, Montana, 1917
a quaker who was the 1st woman in House of Representatives. Gets re-elected, and votes no for WW2. Gets a lot of criticism
Carrie Chapman Catt
President of National American Women's Suffrage Assoc. Said women were better than men and should vote. Uses money to campaign state by state. The Democratic Party was more receptive.
said all men and women were equal. not a lot of support between NAWSA. Didn't care what political party you were as long as you supported suffrage, she'll campaign you. National Women's Party was more successful.
19th Amendment 1920
Rights of citizens to vote won't be denied due to sex. Needed 3/4 of states to vote to support. It is law for ages 21+
Black Tuesday, Oct 29, 1929
stock market crash. gap is getting bigger and bigger. 5% of rich had 30% increase, poor class has 60%-20%. Middle class had 35%-40%. Unemployment rate fell 30% and there was no insurance back then. Subsistence living.
Male Authority and Gender Roles
Females ended up becoming the breadwinners and men were more offended. It was easier for women to find a job due to a 1/3 salary. Men got depressed and turned to a criminal life, domestic violence was at an all time high.
Aunt Molly Jackson
was a midwife with no stable salary. goes downtown to get flour and told kids to stay outside. told grocer to put it on tab and when he said no, she pulled a pistol on him
Chicago School Children
500 kids have a school walkout in winter to administrators of school and had a sit in for food.
Dust Bowl Migrants
headed to the west because land was very dry during drought. California shut the borders on them and migrant camps formed.
Franklin D. Roosevelt
Governor of N.Y program that gets bills passed to help for homelessness, jobs, and welfare. Called himself Dr.New Deal. Gets elected as president and passes many legislation within 100 days. Americans love him.
Works Progress Administration
Blue collar workers to build infrastructures across country: trains, irrigation system,airports, ditches, etc. White collars hired writers, engineers, etc. Created a tourism industry. Hired writers to talk about slavery.
a wpa photographer who was hired to document the era and photograph Florence Thompson. Was able to get emergency bill made, and helped to expand WPA
Migrant mother. 5 billion to emergency care plan because of CA pics
was secretary of labor and scared to meet FDR because it was a very important job, concerned about husband and male cabinet. Was too radical.
Unemployment and Social Security Act, 1935
FDR still hired Francis Perkins and supported her. Employers puts percentage of income for you. 2 old age pension
Fair Labor Standards Act, 1938
Forces employees to create better work contracts. Outlaws child labors and says children must be at school. At least a 44hr work week and the start of minimum wage.
Was FDR's cousin 5x removed. Born into a very privileged family in NY, father has mental issues and mother is a debutante. Mother is embarrassed of her and she always wanted her love. Went to an academy where a headmistress changed her life.
Says no to FDR twice. 3rd time is the charm. Kept engagement secret for a year and fought on honeymoon. FDR would always flirt with others, and MIL had a joint floors to their house. MIL would fire their nanny, indiscipline their kids. Lucy is hired as a confidante, but would cheat with FDR. Would do campaign tours with many suffragists . was called "eyes and ears of the depression"
First Lady Agenda
Very effective in getting message out to the people. Meets with wives and takes them to slums of city and she loves Ida B. Wells. Was against lynching, segregation, Jim Crow Laws. Goes to black colleges and sits in auditorium and slowly moves to black side. Holds press conferences with only black reporters.
FDR was neutral about war until Pearl Harbor. Was asked to campaign by FDR for the war efforts. Starts tour to represent FDR at factories. Goes abroad to europe where men are stationed. War would take a toll on her
Women's Airforce Service Pilots
Would let women assist but not join war. If you were from a rich family with 1000 hrs you were hired. Ferry planes to military bases and train new pilots. Doesn't get anything for their work. Had to report to Superintendent every time you had your period.
Edith Nurse Rogers, MA
proposed bill women can get jobs in military and passed in 1942.
Military Services-Temporary Status
Women can enlist only temporarily in 43-45. Government said it would be a feminizing experience for women to not freak out the public,.
Post WWII ERA
U.S was seen as the wealthiest and strongest in the world. Was allies with Soviet Union in '42.
Soviet Unions were allies but tense on how to reconstruct war. US and SR had a nuclear weapon competition. Had a push to make women a more stabilizing force. Media gets involved projecting these gender roles.
Conformity-Rigid Gender Roles
"Leave it to Beaver" pushing women to be back in their domestic roles and a stabilizing force in home. Idea of the perfect housewife. Separate beds and spanking to show authority.
Cold War isn't severe at the moment. 1947-1953 most babies than last 30 years, Social and political changes. Social and Political changes.
1st time minorities can be in a branch of military, 60% higher than whites. Black people thought they would get equal rights but were wrong. Were targeted more because of this.
National Association for the Advancement of Colored People
Goes to the south to help assist with people making lawsuits against schools for equality
Linda Brown, Topeka, Kansas.
Had to walk miles to get to school in 3rd grade and dad goes to school board. NAACP supports dad. Many lawsuits are filed after this.
Barbara Johns, Farmville Virginia
a junior organizes a student strike at RHS. Gets representative from each grade and marched to superintendents office. NAACP takes the cause, 20 year legal campaign against Jim Crow. Barbara only wants equal funding not integration.
Brown V. Board Education II, 1955
schools must integrate with all deliberate soeed. a long drawn out process
a 43 year old seamstress who was called a good christian woman by whites. Secretary of local NAACP and knew her rights. Finds 1 empty bus bench in front of black section, Refused to leave and police called. Was told she violated segregation laws.
Women's Political Caucus
Boycotted all buses and organized a phone tree after Rosa was arrested. !00 people arrested, and 4 churches burned down within a month. Women approach MLK for help.
Dr. Martin Luther King Jr.
Said yes to hold rally for a boycott. Took a year to beat segregation of buses, but towns won't due it. Forms the SCLC. "Civil Disobedience"
Southern Christian Leadership Conference
100 ministers in frontlines of boycotts. Wanted male leaderships, but not good with organization. Couldn't find a man so they asked Ella Baker
Ella Baker-Executive Director
Asked to work temporarily but not offended. Glad men are stepping up and working at grass root level of SCLC. Tension with ministers due to facing many trials. Helps organize the SNCC.
Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee, 1960
Ella Baker created this for college students. Trains them to be their own leaders.
Typically women who implement at the grass root level. Trains and prepares them.
Fanny Lou Hamer-Childhood
very poor family who dropped out 6th grade to help family. Mom trained her to do domestic work and dad is a baptist minister who made bootleg liquor. Buys livestock but was poisoned by water troph. Was good at math and discovered people weren't being paid fairly and is an advocate for community
Fanny Lou Hammer-Hospitalized
Had a miscarriage. Found a tumor in the stomach which was the cause. Was sterilized on purpose. Discovers she wasn't the only one. Doctors get bonuses for sterilizing the poor community. Discovered "Sterilization Bill" mississipi wants to pass. If you have 2 or more children out of wedlock, fined and arrested.
Fanny wasn't legally married and registers to vote against bill. Given literary test about facto laws and failed, but was failed on purpose. Family was fired due to being a threat by supremacists. Starts tutoring people at SNCC to pass, and can shop in store if you do. Started SNCC carpool and was fined for driving wrong color.
Freedom Rides, 1961
Buses from D.C., throughout South, end in New Orleans to integrate buses ."Please help us" letter to FBI, no response. Start, first bus fire-bombed by KKK, Blacks and White injured, second bus safe to first station, attacked there. SNCC joins fight, but members almost killed when arrested during interrogation JFK Admin allowed National Guard to protect them
Freedom Summer, Mississippi, 1964
One of the most violent states. Had Silver Dollar Klan who put silver dollar in mouth of victims. SNCC has 3 goals to register black voters, integrate businesses, and have freedom schools. SNCC invited white college students to join, and put pressure on legislators. 3 students dead and bodies found. Isn't successful.
Civil Rights Act, 1964
Lyndon B. Johnson passed the act and 1st law to enforce Supreme Court decision. To desegregate schools, cant discriminate people due to race, gender, religion, etc. Mississippi didn't listen until 1987.
Voting Rights, 1965
Can't keep someone from voting based on gender and race.
Civil Rights Disillusionment
A lot of women in Freedom Summer, but men made most of the decisions. Lots of sexism: said women were only good for sex. Women had to solve their own problems.
Women as a Minority
Women made up 52% of the population. Wasn't seen as a minority but F.Shaffey said blacks and women were neglected in society based on appearance and were denied basic rights.
was a very privileged journalist who did stories on worker rights until she was fired. Days were filled of domestic work. Husband said to either get pregnant or be put on tranquilizers for depression, Friends had similar stories to her. Also sent out anonymous fliers to colleges
Feminine Mystique, 1963
created rigid gender roles in U.S.
Containment of Women
Wanted a career to enjoy but was told to do domestic work at home, because society likes to criticize. Working women said this was b.s but 100,000 books sold.
Counter Culture 1960
Women can't do anything without the permission of a man. Two waves: 1) Seneca Falls 1848-1920 2) 1960's-70's. A time where people were questioning everything.
The Pill 1960
Women can participate fully and was approved by FDA but many health problems. Doctors wouldn't prescribe it to single women.
Ester Peterson- Women's Bureau/Presidential Commission on the Status of Women
Appointed by JFK, leaders to discuss women's issues and identify it. Eleanor Roosevelt came out of retirement.
Reshape language around women's issues. 1963 act does nothing.
Title VII Equal Employment Opportunity Commission
organiation to police title VII can file complaint with them and will investigate, but focused more on racial complaints. Women were mad.
NOW-National Organization for Women 1966
Betty Freidan is president. Consciousness raising groups, take action: equalize pay, maternity leave, childcare, tax credit - successful
Conscious Raising Groups
Decided at lunch to pressure group. Women get together in their communities. Sue banks and have to change loan policy. Went after universities, male apply only jobs, etc. Win millions of dollars in pay equity.
Law passed saying tax credits can't fine pregnant women.
Women's International Terrorist Conspiracy from Hell (WITCH)
showed up into women's rallies in black and would spew hate speeches, Thought women were man haters and protest beauty pageants.
Gloria Steinman-Ms. Magazine 1971
Leader in NOW and was in investigative journalist. Investigated Hugh Heffner and discovered the bunnies were paid 1/4, had to make things themselves, and was exploiting them. Feminized feminism and said women should act like a man, MS protests legal definition of census data. Miss-Femme Sole Mrs. -Femme Covert
Vietnam Military Service
Vietnam wanted to be a communist country and was the 1st secret war since WW2. 5 presidents lied about this. Ends in '75 and can make careers out of it, and expands roles. Couldn't be in combat.
Protestors- Bernadine Dorhn- Weathermen
protested government in vietnam and how they ignored civil rights, "Bring the War Home". Started bombing weathermen studios, went underground until war ends, and turned herself in. Evidence thrown out due to FBI messiness.
Equal Rights Amendment 1975
3/4 states needed to ratify this. Alice Paul tried in 1923. Didn't get passed.
Roe V Wade
lawsuit filed by raped girl and wanted right to terminate pregnancy. Applied to 1st trimester.
2nd Wave Disillusionment
Civil right movement is slow and violent. Gov't slow to respond, Feminist considered a negative word and still happens today.
New Conservative Right
High status in religious industry and would support religious politicians in republican party to gain power. Hates equality and was racist,
a lawyer and leader in Republican Party and didn't support equality.
"Stop Taking Our Privileges"
Says feminists are lying about having it all. Says women can't do double shift because they don't have wifes. Women are believing this crap. No correlation to his claims.
Women don't have wifes to help at home after they work 40-60hrs/week. Have to do everything by themselves.
Rates are rising but blames everything on women
harder to get pregnant at 30, being more infertile
1975 Vietnam War. Had 35 states to ratify, need 38 and was unsuccessful. Used as a fear tactic and said women would have to register. Reagan was successful at stopping this.
Alimony, Custody, Child Support
says alimony will go away and have to share 50/50 and have equal custody. In a divorce will have to give alimony to husband.
Title IX, 1972
2nd gen says doors have opened due to this, and have equal opportunities. Doesn't remember a time where they struggled.
Clarence Thomas V. Anita Hill
Bush wanted to appoint him in Supreme court. He served in EEOC, and was investigated due to sexual harassment claims, but FBI swept it under the rug. Women in House of Reps managed to get investigation opened, but Anita Hill lost.
Year of the Woman 1992
4-8% in congress in '92. Today there is 19%. 3/9 women currently on supreme court.
Female Voting Block
Trying to get more women in government, and is currently at 19%.
Women get 77 cents to a man's $, ethnic minority groups even lower: African Americans: 68 cents, Latinos: 59 cents. Women make up 50% of workforce, 2/3 of min. wage jobs, 70% of these jobs have no days off
signed the Lily Ledbetter act, reformed the paying act in 1963, had to identify and complain of unequal pay within months of discovery.
The Hunting Ground, 2015
Talks about college are places where women and LGBT are preyed upon. investigations swept under rugs, and rarely punish the accused. Women in documentary started suing under Title 9 due to not having equal opportunities where they have to go to class wit accused,.
CA Senate Bill 967- Yes Means Yes Law, 2014
Gov Brown encourages the only way something is consensual is if they say yes to everything.
sexual harassment, lewd pictures, notes, etc. People underestimated women. Earned 60% less than men.
Fear of being blackballed. Female sexuality portrayal. Encouraged violence.
Domestic Violence- Thurman Law
reporting violence was futile. Tracy was abused for 8 months and stabbed 13 times with a broken neck. Tracy sued PD and won a multimillion lawsuit.
Failures of Women's Movement
Roles of women's society, childcare, unequal pay, sexual harassment, focus on economics of working women.
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