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Location of the lavator ani:
one of two muscles of the diaphragm that stretch across the floor of the pelvic cavity, supporting the pelvic organs & surrounding the urethra, vagina & rectum, broad thin muscle
Structures of the broad ligament:
double fold of the peritoneum, extends from the lateral aspects of the uterus to pelvic sidewall
Layers of the uterus:
Perimetrium: serous outer layer of uterus, serosa
Myometrium: muscular middle layer of uterus composed of thick smooth muscle, supported by connective tissue
Endometrium: inner mucous membrane of uterine body
Functions of TGC:
Time Gain Compensator - increases or decreases echo amplitude at predetermined depth
an ovum is released once a month by one of the two ovaries, usually occurs midcycle about day 14 of a 28 day cycle
Regions of the fallopian tube:
Infundibulum - funnel shaped lateral tube that projects beyond the broad ligament. Ampulla - widest part, fertilization occurs. Isthmus - hardest part.
Interstitial - enters the uterus at the cornua
Define graafian follicle:
a mature ovarian vesicle that ruptures during ovulation to release the ovum
Sonographic appearance of the proliferative phase:
hypoechoic follicle will be present, thin endometrium, uterine lining thick
Broad: lateral aspect of uterus to pelvic sidewall
Mesovarium: posterior fold of broad ligament, encloses overy Mesosalpinx: upper fold, encloses fallopian tube
Round: fundus to anterior pelvic sidewall, holds uterus forward Cardinal: extends across pelvic floor laterally, supports the cervix Uterosacral: supports cervix Ovarian: extends from ovary to uterine cornua
Function of color doppler:
the encoded doppler shift as red (toward the Tx) or blue (away from the Tx)
Phases of the menstrual cycle:
proliferative phase - day 1-14. corresponds to the follicular phase of ovarian cycle. menstruation occurs on day 1 to 4. thin endometrium. estrogen level increases as ovarian follicles develop. increasing estrogen levels cause uterine lining to regenerate & thicken. ovulation occurs on day 14.
secretory phase - days 15 to 28. corresponds to luteal phase of ovarian cycle. ruptured follicle becomes corpus luteum. corpus luteum secretes progesterone. endometrium thickens. if no pregnancy, estrogen & progesterone decrease. menses on day 28
AKA: saline infused sonography (SIS) involves the installation of sterile saline solution into the endometrial cavity
Proliferative phase: 4-8 mm, hypoechoic
Before ovulation: 6-10 mm, isoechoic
After ovulation: 7-14 mm, echogenic
Cleaning of the vaginal probe:
cleaned with disifectant & dried with a towel. then soak in disifectant between uses for at least 10-20 minutes
Vaginal scanning orientation:
the left side of screen corresponds to the cephalic & right side of patient, the right side of the screen corresponds to the caudal & left side of patient
Ovarian hormone production:
the anterior pituitary gland to secrete FSH & LH (the surge of FSH & LH)
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