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184 terms

Culinary Arts - Midterm

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Name the positions of the classical brigade & their functions.
exec chef: In charge of the kitchen
chef de cuisine: reports to exec chef
sous chef: in charge of production & reports to chef
saucier: sauces, stews, hot d'oeuvres, & sautes food to order - highest position under sous chef
poissonier: fish dishes
entremetier: veggie cook
rotisseur: roasted/brasied meats & other lg meats
grillardin: broiled items, deep fried fish/meats
patissier: pastries & desserts
tournant: relief/swing cook
aboyeur: expediter
Who is one of the most influential French chefs of the 18th & 19th centuries and what were his two main contributions?
Escoffier - the simplification of classical cuisine and the classical menu & the reorganization of the kitchen
List the ingredients found in the standard mirepoix & the ratio.
Onion (50), Carrots (25), Celery (25)
Give the dimensions of a large dice.
3/4 x 3/4 x 3/4
Give the dimensions of a medium dice.
1/2 x 1/2 x 1/2
Give the dimensions of a small dice.
1/4 x 1/4 x 1/4
Give the dimensions of a brunoise.
1/8 x 1/8 x 1/8
Give the dimensions of a fine brunoise.
1/16 x 1/16 x 1/16
Give the dimensions of a batonnet.
1/4 x 1/4 x 2-2.5
Give the dimensions of a julienne.
1/8 x 1/8 x 1-2
Give the dimensions of a fine julienne.
1/16 x 1/16 x 1-2
Describe the salting process & any pertinent details.
Salt proteins when raw before cooking and always taste when salting to make sure you don't oversalt.
List the three forms of cooking w/heat & give examples of each.
Dry: bake, broil, roast
Dry w/fat: saute, pan fry, deep fry
Moist: boil, poach, braise
List & briefly describe the three methods of heat transfer.
conduction: heat transferred from direct contact from each surface
convection: heat transferred through movement of air
radiant: heat transferred through waves
The danger zone is between what degrees.
41 and 135
Define what potentially hazardous food is.
Any food that easily harbors bacteria that can cause illness or injury
What is the 4 Hour Rule?
Food must not be in the danger zone for more than 4hrs cumulative from receiving to serving.
List the five steps for properly cleaning tools and equipment in the proper sequence.
1. scrape
2. wash
3. rinse
4. sanitize
5. air dry
What sanitizing solution do we use and in what proportions?
bleach & water - 50 ppm of bleach to water in sink for sanitizing dishes
You are about to open a hot oven in a busy kitchen to remove & check your product. What do you need to have in hand & what do you need to say?
"hot oven!" - have a dry towel & instant read thermometer
You have just finished breaking down a chicken on a cutting board at your station. What do you immediately need to do to avoid cross contamination to other surfaces from your hands tools & board.
Wash & sanitize the cutting board, wash your knives & your hands. New cutting board.
T or F - the best way to defrost a chicken is to leave it out at room temperature
F - best way to defrost is always in the fridge or under running cold water
T or F - cooking time for foods are always exactly as specified in the recipe
F - there are lots of factors that can make the cooking times vary--they are merely a guide
What are the ingredients and ratio to the basic vinaigrette?
1:3:9 - emulsifier, acid, oil
What is the basic recipe & yield for a basic stock.
1 gallon yield
5-6 qts water
8# bones
1# mirepoix
1 bouquet garni
Give two important rules to making a flavorful & clear stock.
constantly skim the skum & simmer for the full time period (don't boil) so the flavors fully develop
List three categories of soup & give an example of each.
Clear - chicken noodle
Thick - bisque
Specialty - miso
List the five mother sauces & the liquid for each one.
Bechamel - milk
Espagnole - brown stock
Tomato - tomato + opt stock
Hollandaise - butter
Veloute - white stock
What are the ingredients in a roux & their proportions?
equal parts fat and flour
The danger zone for food.
41 and 135 degrees
How are bechamel and veloute similar and how are they different.
They are both thickened with a roux. Bechamel is made using milk as its liquid and veloute uses a white stock & blond roux
Name the four parts of a grain & which is the only part found in white (refined) flours?
bran, husk, germ, & *endosperm
Names three types of legumes.
Peanut, beans, lentils
What is key to making an emulsified butter sauce, such as beurre fondu or beurre blanc?
To slowly add in cold butter w/the liquid and not scorch, burn or break it
What are the four basic bread ingredients?
Flour, water, yeast, salt
How many cups in a pint.
2
How many quarts in a gallon.
4
How many ounces in a cup.
8
How many oz in a pound.
16
What are the two main types of potatoes and give an example of a dish made from each.
Waxy - roasted new potatoes
Starchy - pommes puree
What are the two main types of rice & what cooking technique is appropriate for each?
pilaf - works well w/ any rice
risotto - arborio rice cooks ideally this way
Describe what you would look for in a properly made sauce.
Shiny, Nappe (thickened sauce) & for the ingredients to be fully emulsified
Define bake.
Dry heat method in an oven for breads
Define grill.
Cook on a grate over a heat source.
Define braise.
Cook slowly in a flavorful liquid, sometimes browning 1st
Define roast
Dry heat method in an oven
Define simmer
Slow cooking in water
Define saute
Little oil, hot pan, dry product, don't crowd/cover
Define deep fry
Submerge & cook in hot oil
Define boil
Rapid cooking in water
Define steam
Put in a perforated pan over boiling water & covered
Define sweat
Little oil, low heat, season & cover
What is the main difference in how red and white wines are made. And what feature does this give red wines.
Skins are removed from the whites. Red wines have tannins, body & colors because of this.
What are the products of yeast fermentation, whether in bread or wine making?
CO2 & alcohol
Define fond.
Drippings from a roast
Define deglaze.
Process of using stock/wine etc to get all the caramelization/fond off the bottom of the pan.
Define compound butter.
Butter that is flavored & seasonsed when soft w/various ingredients & then rolled & hardened in the fridge.
Define demi glaze
Rich brown sauce reduced by half
Define break.
When a sauce separates
Define soup
Liquid food
Define sauce.
Made from a liquid & thickener
Define stock
Flavorful liquid made from animals bones and/or veg
Define rose.
A type of wine that is pinkish in color and comes from a specific kind of grape.
List the four primal cuts in the forequarter of beef and whether it is tender or tough.
Chuck - tough
Rib - tender
Plate - tender
Brisket - tough
List the three primal cuts in the hindquarter and whether it is tender or tough.
Loin - tender
Round - tough
Flank - tender
List the five primal cuts in a hog, not including the head.
shoulder picnic
boston butt
loin
ham
spare ribs
In general what makes up muscle meat?
75% water, 20% protein, 5% fat
Name two benefits of fat in meat.
Tenderness & flavor
What are the two types of connective tissue found in meats, and what preparation or cooking method is appropriate for each.
Collagen - moist cooking method
Elastin - must be broken down mechanically through pounding, grinding etc
Define chiffonade.
Finely shredded leaves.
Define oblique/roll cut.
Cut at angle turn item 1/4, cut at angle again, etc
How many ounces in a gallon.
128
How many tablespoons in a cup.
16
How many teaspoons in a cup.
48
Name the four main tongue tastes and a food that exhibits each one prominently.
Sweet - honey
Salty - soy sauce
Bitter - bitters
Sour - lemon juice, vinegar
A leading sauce is made up of what.
Thickener + liquid
A small sauce is a leading sauce plus what.
Flavor profile
Name the five mother sauces, its thickener & liquid
Bechamel: milk & white roux
Espagnole: brown stock & brown roux
Tomato: tomato + opt stock
Hollandaise: butter & eggs
Veloute: white stock & blond roux
Why is it important to rest cooked meats prior to carving & serving?
Because it allows the juices to flow back throughout the meat.
What would be included in the mise en place for plating the main course?
All the items to be plated and any garnishes that are to be used--plates warmed for hot food, chilled for cold food etc.
Name an appropriate cooking method for a whole chicken.
Roast
Name an appropriate cooking method for a chicken breast
Grill
Name an appropriate cooking method for chicken legs & thighs
Braise
Name an appropriate cooking method for pork loin
Roast
Name an appropriate cooking method for beef chuck.
Braise
How does the dark leg meat of chicken differ from the white breast meat and how does this affect the cooking method and doneness temp for each?
The dark meat is tougher because it has a lot more connective tissue and is from a muscle that is utilized often. Cooks better w/moist cooking techniques & takes slightly longer.
Salmonella is a risk factor for what?
Eggs and chicken
Spreading salmonella can be prevented by avoiding what in the kitchen?
cross contamination
USDA inspection is simply an assurance of the what of meats?
wholesomeness
The three highest grades of beef from highest to lowest are.
prime
choice
select
The grades of meat are somewhat based on the fat _______ of the meat.
Marbling
Give one reason dry aged beef is more expensive than wet aged.
It can lose up to 20% of its weight through loss of moisture.
Define Duroc.
Hog breed
Define Wagyu.
Breed of cattle that originated in Kobe, Japan
Define Heritage.
Traditional
Define hormone free
Animals never administered hormones.
Define grass fed.
100% pastured animals
Define capon.
Castrated rooster.
Define commodity
Industrial
Define free range
Poultry that simply has access to the outdoors.
Define natural.
No legal meaning.
Define Angus
Breed of US cattle.
Pinot noir is a red wine grape from the French region of ________.
Burgandy.
What are the red wine grapes of Bourdeaux?
cabernet sauvignon & merlot
Quality French wines from a named region have the designation of______.
AOC
Define marbling.
Fat within meat.
Define umami.
5th taste, perception of meatiness.
Define terroir.
The combination of factors, including soil, climate, and environment, that gives a wine its distinctive character
Define baked custard & give an example.
Custard that contains eggs, milk, cream & sugar & thickened thru egg coagulation in oven - creme brulee, pot de creme etc
Define citrus supremes & give a use for them.
Membrane free citrus cut - great for fruit tarts
Define pate sucree & its use
Sweet, mealy dough - used as a tart trust, sweet roll dough etc.
Define pastry cream & its use
Stovetop custard thickened with cornstarch - used as a filling for tarts
Define creme anglaise & its use
Vanilla custard - topping for desserts
Define fruit coulis & its use
Fruit puree used as a sauce - could be used over baked desserts, ice cream, etc
Define ganache & its use
Equal parts cream and chocolate - used as topping on eclairs etc
Define pate brisee & its use
Flaky dough, broken dough - used for quiche, pie top crust, unsweetened
Define pate a choux & its use
"cabbage paste" - Soft dough used to make cream puffs & eclairs
Define chantilly cream & its use
Sweetened whipped cream - used on top of pie, in cream puffs etc
T or F: You must bring the liquids & butter to a full boil before adding the flour when making pate a choux.
True
T or F: You can substitute egg yolks for whole eggs with no change in the texture of the finished product.
False
T or F: Liquids and sugar are both tenderizers.
False
T or F: In pastry recipes, the unit of measure "oz" and "fl oz" mean the same thing.
False
T or F: Measuring by weight is usually more efficient and accurate than measuring by volume.
True
T or F: The ingredient which thickens ALL custards is cornstarch.
False
T or F: Leavenors used in pastry and baking can be grouped into three categories: biological, chemical, & mechanical.
True
T or F: You can substitute cold butter if a recipe calls for room temp butter.
False
T or F: Active dry yeast and instant dry yeast are used in exactly the same way.
False
T or F: Pie dough is rested and chilled to relax any gluten developed during mixing and firm the butter, making the dough easier to roll out and handle.
True
What are two common problems that can occur when caramelizing sugar?
Crystallization and burning the sugar & making it bitter.
Describe the process of blind baking and why its important.
Blind baking is baking a pie crust, tart shell etc without filling in it. Dock the crust & place pie weights in it over parchment & then either parbake it or fully bake it if using an unbaked filling. Helps prevent sogginess & keeps crust from rising on bottom & becoming too thick.
What are the five basic baking ingredients?
Eggs, Liquid, Fat, Flour, Sweeteners
What are examples of eggs used in baking & their function?
Whole, yolks, whites - Emulsification, moisture
What are examples of liquids used in baking & their function?
Water, milk - Allows for gluten development
What are examples of fats used in baking & their function?
Butter, shortening - Tenderizer, richness, flavor
What are examples of flours used in baking & their function?
AP, cake, bread - structure, body
What are examples of sweeteners used in baking & their function?
Sugar, honey - Flavor, caramelization
How much does 1 cup of AP flour weight?
4.4 oz
How is pastry cream different from other custards with respect to its ingredients & method of preparation?
Its a stirred custard and thickened with cornstarch.
Name one similarity and one difference between creme brulee and creme caramel.
They are both custards. Creme brulee is usually served in the dish it is baked in and a hard, sugar crust is made using a torch. Creme caramel is turned out upside down and its caramel bottom becomes its top sauce.
What is gluten and whats an example of a product that needs it and a product where you should avoid it. Describe how to avoid developing gluten.
Gluten is a substance made up of proteins found in wheat that provides substance and structure. French bread requires gluten & it should be avoided in pie dough. Can be avoided by kneading dough as minimally as possible & keeping the ingredients chilled.
What is the purpose of scoring bread loaves before baking?
To allow for controlled expansion - so that the bread breaks in a decorative fashion rather than where you don't want it to.
What are the ingredients in a bouquet garni?
Bay leaf, thyme, peppercorns, clove, parsley stems
What are the two main categories of offal and examples of each?
Glandular: liver, kidneys, intestines, sweetbreads
Muscular: tongue, oxtail, heart, tripe
T or F: The terms GAME is used to refer to poultry and meat normally found in the wild.
True
T or F: EP means edible portion
True
T or F: The different parts of an egg all coagulate at the same temperature.
False
T or F: Sweetbreads are the thymus glands of calves and young beef animals
True
T or F: Most calf's liver is served pan-fried, sauteed or broiled.
True
T or F: Tripe is the muscular stomach lining of meat animals.
True
T or F: Deer is typically called venison
True
T or F: Boar is a type of wild pig.
True
T or F: Buffalo or American Bison, is raised on ranches in the western US and Canada and handled like beef.
True
T or F: Hare is a wild cousin of the rabbit.
True
T or F: Au jus, served with its natural juices, is the un-thickened pan drippings.
True
Define confit.
"Preserved" - Satured in fat (poultry, meat), vinegar (veggies), sugar (fruit), or alcohol (fruit)
Define ballontine.
Meat that has been de-boned & stuffed
Define galantine.
Forcemeat that is wrapped in the skin of the animal it came from, or in a long cylinder shape.
Whole beaten eggs coagulate at what temperature?
156 degrees
The principle purpose of the chalazea in an egg is?
To hold the yolk in the center.
A fritatta is a flat omelet that originated in what country?
Italy
A good way to prepare a large quantity of bacon is in the ?
Oven
Canadian bacon is most similar to?
Ham
A custard baked in a pastry shell is called a ?
Quiche
T or F: Grade A eggs are best for poaching & frying.
False - AA are best
T or F: Eggs in the shell readily absorb flavors & odors from other foods.
True
T or F: Properly poached eggs have firm whites & yolks.
False - runny yolks
T or F: Properly cooked eggs have crisp, well-browned edges.
False
T or F: The egg yolk is high in both fat & protein.
True
T or F: Eggs can lose a full grade in one day at warm kitchen temps.
True
T or F: Proper storage of eggs are at 36 degrees.
True
T or F: An overcooked egg is tough and rubbery.
True
What temp does whole eggs (beaten) coagulate at?
156 degrees
What temp do egg whites coagulate at?
140-149 degrees
What temp do egg yolks coagulate at?
144-154 degrees
What temps do custards coagulate at?
175-185 degrees
The composition of eggs is primarily?
Shell, yolk, white
What is a paysanne dice?
1/2 x 1/2 x 1/8
A ______ sauce = thickener + liquid
mother or leading
A small sauce = _______ + flavor profile
mother or leading
List the mother sauces & the liquid for each one.
Bechamel - milk
Espagnole - brown stock
Tomato - tomato
Hollandaise - butter
Veloute - white stock
What are the ingredients in a gastrique?
caramelized sugar, acid, demi, fruit profile
What does AP stand for in menu production?
as purchased
What is the proper temperature to store eggs at?
36
Define consomme
A rich, flavorful seasoned stock that has been clarified to make it perfectly clear and translucent.