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Ch. 2 Motion (HW ?'s)
Terms in this set (25)
What two classes of motion did Aristotle advocate?
Natural motion and violent motion
What did Galileo discover in his legendary experiment on the Leaning Tower of Pisa?
the heavier stone does not fall significantly faster than the lighter stone
What did Copernicus say about the motion of the Sun?
the sun is stationary and earth circles it
How does Newton's first law of motion relate to Galileo's concept of inertia?
Newton refined Galileo's concept of inertia and made it his first law of motion
What is the net force on a cart that is pulled to the right with 100 pounds of force and to the left with 30 pounds of force?
the net force is 70 pounds to the right
What was the greatest discovery by Galileo during his inclined-plane experiments?
What are the units for force?
Newton said that something was needed to change the motion of an object. A clear reading of his first law tells us that what is needed is ______.
Consider a book that weighs 15 N at rest on a flat table. How many newtons of support force does the table exert on the book?
15 Newtons up
What is inertia?
The tendency of a body to maintain in its state of motion in the absence of applied forces
What is the net force when a pair of 5-N forces simultaneously act in the same direction on an object?
A bowling ball at rest is in equilibrium. Is the ball in equilibrium when it moves at constant speed in a straight-line path?
yes it is in equilibrium
Which of Newton's laws does the equilibrium rule illustrate?
What concept was not understood in the 16th century when people couldn't conceive of a moving Earth?
they did not understand inertia
How much support force acts on a 200-N girl standing on a weighing scale?
What state of motion did Aristotle attribute to Earth?
According to the parallelogram rule, what quantity is represented by the diagonal of a constructed parallelogram?
the diagonal is the resultant, or sum, of 2 vectors
A force is a vector quantity because it has both
magnitude and direction
When are you most aware of your motion in a moving vehicle: when it is moving steadily in a straight line or when it is accelerating? If you were in a car that moved with absolutely constant velocity (no bumps at all), would you be aware of the motion?
Accelerating. You would not be aware of the motion if you did not look outside the car.
Acceleration is generally defined as the time rate of change of velocity. When can it be defined as the time rate of change of speed?
Why did Aristarchus choose the time of a half Moon to make his measurements for calculating the Earth -Sun distance?
The Earth, Moon, and Sun formed a right triangle at that time
What are the circular spots of light seen on the ground beneath a tree on a sunny day?
These are pinhole images of the Sun
The Greek mathematician Eratosthenes made measurements to show the size of _______.
When the Sun was directly overhead in Syene, why wasn't it directly overhead in Alexandria?
earth is a sphere
Throughout the ages, what has been the general reaction to new ideas about established "truths"?
new ideas are opposed
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